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Centre for Research in Environmental Appraisal and Management (CREAM)

CREAM is a long established group at the forefront of advances in environmental economics and valuation.  Its research provides a sound quantitative economic analysis of the environmental benefits of policies, regulations, and projects; and cost-benefit analysis of investments with environmental impacts. 

Research within CREAM has had major policy impacts in a number of areas: agri-environmental policies, forestry, environmental appraisal, and water resources.  Its research has been used to inform policy by British Waterways, DECC, DEFRA, DFID, DfT, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Natural England, UKWIR, WRc, a number of water companies, and the World Bank.  It has received research council grants from AHRC, ESRC, EPSRC, and NERC. 

Staff have considerable expertise and experience in environmental economics in terms of estimating non-market benefits through contingent valuation methods (CVM), stated preference choice experiments (CEs), hedonic price models (HPM), and travel-cost models (TCM); and in cost-benefit analysis (CBA). 

Research themes and interest areas include:

  • Agri-environmental schemes
  • Biodiversity: wildlife
  • Cultural economics
  • Energy: renewable energy
  • Forests and woodlands
  • Health: air pollution, animal welfare, green spaces
  • Recreation
  • Rivers: water quality, low flow alleviation
  • Town planning: green belts, market towns, planning conditions, transport
  • Waste disposal: landfill, contaminated land
  • Water: benefits of water quality improvements

Staff have published articles in numerous journals including:

  • Applied Economics, Applied Economic Letters
  • Biodiversity and Conservation, Biological Conservation
  • Cities, Cultural Trends
  • Disasters
  • Ecological Economics, Energy Economics, Energy Policy, Environment and Planning, Environment & Resource Economics, European Review of Agricultural Economics, European Journal of Health Economics
  • Forestry
  • Geoforum
  • International Journal of Heritage Studies, International Journal of Tourism Research
  • Journal of Agricultural Economics, Journal of Cultural Economics, Journal of Cultural Heritage, Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy & Management, Journal of Environmental Management, Journal of Forest Economics, Journal of Forest Policy and Economics, Journal of Housing Research, Journal of Property Research, Journal of Rural Studies, Journal of Transport Economics and Policy
  • Land Economics, Landscape and Urban Planning, Landscape Research, Leisure Sciences
  • Museum Management and Curatorship
  • Pest Management Science, Planning Practice & Research
  • Regional Studies, Rivista di economia agraria
  • Social Indicators Research, Scottish Journal of Political Economy, South African Journal of Economics
  • Town Planning Review, Transportation Research, Transport Reviews
  • Urban Studies, Utilities Policy
  • Water Policy, Water Resources Development, Water Resources Research, World Development, World Forest Resource Management

CREAM is closely linked to and complements the Planning and Environmental Dynamics group in GURU. 


Ken Willis (Director): Environmental economics, valuation, and cost-benefit analysis

Email: Ken.Willis@ncl.ac.uk

Neil Powe: Environmental valuation, urban planning


Guy Garrod: Environmental economics, countryside management

José Grisolía: Stated preference models, transport, cultural economics

Riccardo Scarpa: Environmental economics, valuation, discrete choice modelling

Colin Wymer: Statistical analysis of spatial information, mathematical models