Author(s): M. A. Salih;M. Al Rayess;S. Cutshall;J. A. Urtizberea;M. H. Al-Turaiki;C. O. Ozo;V. Straub;M. Akbar;M. Abid;A. Andeejani;K. P. Campbell
Abstract: We report on two brothers (the product of first-degree consanguineous marriage; aged 15 and 12 years) who presented with severe hypotonia at birth, proximal muscle weakness associated with delayed motor milestones but normal cognitive function. Investigations (at 4 years of age) revealed mildly elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) levels (300 and 824 IU/l; N < or = 210). Muscle biopsies showed minimal change myopathy, no neurogenic atrophy but remarkable type-1 fibre predominance (up to 85.5%) without fibre-type disproportion. Clinical examination at 12 and 9 years, respectively, showed mild facial weakness and high-arched palate in both patients. The younger sibling also had ptosis but otherwise normal external ocular muscles. They showed symmetric proximal muscle weakness and wasting associated with calf-muscle hypertrophy. They could walk independently. A repeat muscle biopsy showed advanced dystrophic changes in the younger patient at the age of 10 years. Virtually all the remaining fibres were type 1. Immunohistochemistry revealed normal expression of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC), including dystrophin, beta-dystroglycan, alpha-(adhalin), beta-, gamma-, and delta-sarcoglycan, laminin-alpha2 chain (merosin) and syntrophin. Mild dystrophic features and type-1 fibre predominance (92.5%) were seen in the biopsy of the older patient, whereas immunohistochemistry showed normal expression of the DGC. Both cases also showed clear expression of integrin alpha7 at the muscle fibre surface and in the blood vessels. Three years later, they could still walk, but with difficulty, and the older brother showed enlargement of the tongue and echocardiographic features of left ventricular dilated cardiomyopathy.
Keywords: Adolescent Child Child, Preschool Consanguinity Disease Progression Dystrophin/analysis Humans Laminin/analysis Male Muscle, Skeletal/chemistry/pathology Muscular Dystrophies/ congenital/genetics/pathology Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology