Professor Nick Reynolds
- Email: email@example.com
- Telephone: +44 (0) 191 208 5840
- Address: Institute of Cellular Medicine (Dermatology)
2rd Floor, William Leech Building
BSc Hons (Intercalated) University of London, 1980
MBBS University of London, 1983
MD University of London, 1995
FRCP, Royal College of Physicians, London, 1999
2001-present Professor of Dermatology, University of Newcastle upon Tyne
2001-2004 Wellcome Trust Research Leave Fellowship for Clinical Academics
1995-2001 Senior Lecturer, University of Newcastle upon Tyne and
Consultant Dermatologist, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne
1993-1994 Senior Registrar, Department of Dermatology, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne
1990-1992 Research Fellow and Lecturer, Department of Dermatology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
1987-1990 Registrar, Department of Dermatology, Bristol Royal Infirmary, Avon
Roles and Responsibilities
Honorary Consultant Dermatologist, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
2008 - 2015 Board Member, European Society for Dermatological Research (ESDR)
2011 - Chair, Research Committee, British Association of Dermatologists Biologic Interventions Register (BADBIR) http://www.badbir.org/
2012 - Chair, UK Translational Research Network in Dermatology (UK TREND) http://uktrend.org/
2013-2014 - President, European Society for Dermatological Research (ESDR) http://www.esdr.org/
• Translational and systems biology research in dermatology and skin biology (including Proximity to Discovery scheme)
• Stratified medicine in Psoriasis and mechanism of action of anti-psoriatic drugs (PSORT: http://www.psort.org.uk/;
• Keratinocyte cell signalling
• UV and wound healing signalling responses
• Clinical trials, molecular genetics and disease models of atopic eczema
My laboratory is interested translatonal research of inflammatory skin disease (specifically psoriasis and atopic eczema). We have a particular interest in gaining insights into disease mechanisms and the pathways involved in clearing psoriasis. We are part of a consortium led by the University of Manchester that has begun work to apply a stratified medicine approach to psoriasis and predict which biological therapy is best suited for an individual patient. The Psoriasis Stratification to Optimise Relevant Therapy (PSORT) consortium is a unique partnership between five UK universities: Manchester, Newcastle, King’s College London, Queen Mary and Liverpool, 10 pharmaceutical and diagnostics companies and the Psoriasis Association and NHS partners representing patients.
We also study the mechanism of action of anti-psoriatic therapies including UVR as we think this may provide important insights into disease pathogenesis and lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets. On-going studies focus on the induction of apoptosis by UVR in the clearance of psoriatic plaques, the interaction of calcineurin inhibitors (ciclosporin and tacrolimus) with the Ca2+/calcineurin/NFAT pathway in human keratinocytes, and the role of mitochondria in mediating the therapeutic action of dithranol in psoriasis.
Another area of focus is keratinocyte cell signalling, particularly in response to environmental insults such as ultraviolet radiation, wounding (in collaboration with Prof Jeremy Lakey, through a EPSRC/BBSRC Innovate UK project) and AhR receptor activation (through a BBSRC Case studentship with Astra Zeneca). We are interested in understanding the regulation of diverse cellular responses induced by UVR. These studies are supported by important collaborations with Professor Peter Farr and Dr Sophie Weatherhead, Dermatology RVI.
We have conducted important investigator-led clinical trials in atopic eczema (e.g. REF 2014 impact case http://impact.ref.ac.uk/CaseStudies/Results.aspx?Id=18946 - graded at least 3* - internationally excellent) and have contributed to increased understanding of the molecular genetics of atopic eczema. We have set up a skin equivalent model of atopic eczema which we are using to investigate therapeutic targets ((through a BBSRC Case studentship with Stiefel/GSK).
I am also lead investigator of Newcastle’s Proximity to Discovery scheme. Newcastle University was the only institution in the UK to be awarded the highest amount - £250,000 in 2014 by the Medical Research Council underscoring our strengths in translational research, business development & innovation and stratified medicine. Our 2015 application was also recently renewed. The goal of the Newcastle Proximity to Discovery programme is to address, in a systematic and innovative fashion - the so called ‘third translational gap’, that is the bilateral knowledge gap between Universities and industry, in order to build further joint ventures and projects.
BBSRC (CASE) with AstraZeneca and GSK
Biomedical Research Centre (BRC)
British Skin Foundation
EPSRC/BBSRC Innovate UK
We place a strong emphasis on undergraduate teaching and postgraduate training. We run an active weekly programme both within ICM and dermatology (clinical and basic science journal clubs, research in progress meetings) and play a key role in the MRes in Medical and Molecular Biosciences.
Many of our clinical trainees pursue higher research degrees funded through external nationally funded fellowships (Wellcome, MRC, Action Medical Research, British Skin foundation) and our PhD students have secured fellowships (European Commission) and post-doctoral positions (eg Settembre lab, TIGEM, Pozzuoli, Italy; Khavari lab, Stanford; Buck Institute, San Francisco; NIH, Bethesda; University of Chicago). In 2006/2007, we were one of only three units in England and Wales to be awarded academic clinical fellowships in dermatology through a national competition and a Walport/NIHR Lectureship was recently established.
Since 2008, three of our clinical trainees have gone on to secure prestigious Wellcome Intermediate Fellowships, one in Dundee and two in Newcastle. Two of these investigators were recently awarded Senior Wellcome Fellowships in Clinical Science (one in Dundee and one in Newcastle).
Postgraduate Student Supervision - Current
Martina Elias (PhD)*
Keith Wu (PhD)*
Emma Woodward (PhD)*
Postgraduate Student Supervision - Completed
Laura Hudson PhD, 2014*
Aparna Sinha MD, 2014*
Darren Johnson PhD, 2013*
Nicola Fullard PhD, 2013
Alison Forrester PhD, 2012*
Sophie Weatherhead PhD, 2011*
Shanji Anthony MPhil, 2009*
Sarah Milner PhD, 2009*
Baba Taal PhD, 2009*
Sara Brown MD with commendation, 2008
Muzz Haniffa PhD, 2008
Ross Flockhart PhD, 2007*
Simon Meggitt MD with distinction, 2006*
Philip Hampton PhD, 2006*
Sandy McBride MD with commendation, 2002*
Wael Al-Daraji MD, 2002*
Paula Fearon PhD, 2002*
NIHR Clinical Academic Training - Current
Zarif Jabbar-Lopez, Academic Clinical Fellow
Henry Grantham, Academic Foundation Fellow
Robert Samuel, Academic Foundation Fellow
RECENT INVITED LECTURES AT NATIONAL/INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES
BSID, Southampton, UK: UK TREND - an opportunity for research
World Congress of Dermatology, Vancouver, Canada: A systems biology approach to understanding the mechanism of action of UVB phototherapy in psoriasis
World Congress of Dermatology, Vancouver, Canada: Systems dermatology: insights into epidermal remodeling in psoriasis
BAD Annual Meeting, Manchester, UK: Research across the academic industrial interface
BAD Annual Meeting, Manchester, UK: Engaging with UK Translational Research Network in Dermatology
European Dermatoepidemiology Network, ESDR, Rotterdam, Netherlands: Personalised Medicine for Skin Diseases
EADV Annual Meeting, Copenhagen, Denmark: A critical appraisal of biologics for psoriasis
Real World Evidence Conference (Janssen), London, UK: BADBIR and PSORT: a pharmacovigilance registry leading onto a stratified medicine initiative
‘Allergy & the Skin’ Study Day, London, UK How should we manage patients with difficult atopic eczema
EADV Annual Meeting, Amsterdam, The Netherlands: “Personalised medicine for inflammatory skin disease”
BAD Annual Meeting, Glasgow, UK: “Physiology and importance of IL-17 in the pathogenesis of psoriasis”
ESDR/EADV Summer Research School, Helsinki, Finland: “Cutaneous transcriptomics”
RCP of Edinburgh Symposium on Dermatology: “How should we manage patients with difficult eczema?”
KSID, Seoul, South Korea: “Mechanistic insight into epidermal remodelling in psoriasis: a systems biology approach”
Leo Research Foundation Prize Award Ceremony, Copenhagen, Denmark: “The dynamic platform of translational research: from bench to bedside and back again”
ESDR Future Leaders Academy, Florence, Italy, A journey through Translation
Medicine and me symposium, RSM, London: “Key advances in psoriasis research” http://www.rsmvideos.com/videoPlayer/?vid=436&class=videoThumb
EADV meeting, Istanbul: “Keratinocyte apoptosis in remodeling and clearance of psoriatic plaques” and “Efficacy of phototherapy in childhood and adult atopic eczema”
BAD Annual Meeting, Liverpool: “Future psoriasis therapy beyond TNF-a blockade” and “Systemic treatment for severe adult atopic dermatitis”
Psoriasis International Network Congress, Paris: “Resistant palmoplantar pustulosis” and “The impact and management of psoriasis in pregnancy”
Irish Association of Dermatologists Meeting, Belfast
RSM Michael Fuell Memorial Lecture, London: “Systems biology in dermatology: mechanistic insight into epidermal remodelling in psoriasis”
EADV Annual Meeting, Prague: “Practical aspects of systemic treatment for atopic dermatitis”
ESDR/EADV Research Course, Rotterdam: “How to run a RCT”.
BAD Annual Meeting, Birmingham: “BADBIR publications and research outputs”
EADV, Lisbon, Portugal: “Evidence-based phototherapy and systemic treatment of atopic dermatitis”. .
ESDR/EADV Research Course, Rome, Italy: “Live Cell Imaging”. .
BAD Annual Meeting, London: “Individualisation of medicine in dermatology: a realistic aim?”
THESIS Meeting, London: “Clinical Research”.
- Iskandar I, Ashcroft DM, Warren RB, Yiu ZZN, McElhone K, Lunt M, Barker JNWN, Burden AD, Ormerod AD, Reynolds NJ, Smith CH, Griffiths CEM. Demographics and disease characteristics of patients with psoriasis enrolled in the British Association of Dermatologists Biologic Interventions Register. British Journal of Dermatology 2015, 173(2), 510-518.
- Warren RB, Smith CH, Yiu ZZN, Ashcroft DM, Barker JNWN, Burden AD, Lunt M, McElhone K, Ormerod AD, Owen CM, Reynolds NJ, Griffiths CEM, BADBIR Study Grp. Differential Drug Survival of Biologic Therapies for the Treatment of Psoriasis: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study from the British Association of Dermatologists Biologic Interventions Register (BADBIR). Journal of Investigative Dermatology 2015, 135(11), 2632-2640.
- Griffiths CEM, Barnes MR, Burden AD, Nestle FO, Reynolds NJ, Smith CH, Warren RB, Barker JNWN, PSORT Consortium. Establishing an Academic-Industrial Stratified Medicine Consortium: Psoriasis Stratification to Optimize Relevant Therapy. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 2015, 135(12), 2903-2907.
- Healy E, Brown SJ, Langan SM, Nicholls SG, Shams K, Reynolds NJ, UK TREND. Identification of translational dermatology research priorities in the UK: results of an electronic Delphi exercise. British Journal of Dermatology 2015, 173(5), 1191-1198.
- Anstey A, Reynolds NJ. What does the BJD now stand for? A position statement. British Journal of Dermatology 2015, 172, 1463-1465.
- Coates LC, Walsh J, Haroon M, Fitzgerald O, Aslam T, Al-Balushi F, Burden AD, Burden-Teh E, Caperon AR, Cerio R, Chattopadhyay C, Chinoy H, Goodfield MJ, Kay L, Kelly S, Kirkham BW, Lovell CR, Marzo-Ortega H, McHugh N, Murphy R, Reynolds NJ, Smith CH, Stewart EJ, Warren RB, Waxman R, Wilson HE, Helliwell PS. Development and Testing of New Candidate Psoriatic Arthritis Screening Questionnaires Combining Optimal Questions from Existing tools. Arthritis Care and Research 2014, 66(9), 1410-1416.
- Forrester AR, Elias MS, Woodward EL, Graham M, Williams FM, Reynolds NJ. Induction of a chloracne phenotype in an epidermal equivalent model by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is dependent on aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation and is not reproduced by aryl hydrocarbon receptor knock down. Journal of Dermatological Science 2014, 73(1), 10-22.
- Weidmann A, Foulkes AC, Kirkham N, Reynolds NJ. Methotrexate toxicity during treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis: A case report and review of the literature. Dermatology and Therapy 2014, 4(2), 145-156.
- Jabbar-Lopez ZK, Wu KC, Reynolds NJ. Newer agents for psoriasis in adults. BMJ 2014, 349, g4026.
- Reynolds NJ. One hundred and twenty-five years and counting: into an era of systems dermatology. British Journal of Dermatology 2014, 171(6), 1279-1281.
- Coates LC, Aslam T, Al-Balushi F, Burden AD, Burden-The E, Caperon AR, Cerio R, Chattopadhyay C, Chinoy H, Goodfield MJ, Kay L, Kelly S, Kirkham BW, Lovell CR, Marzo-Ortega H, McHugh N, Murphy R, Reynolds NJ, Smith CH, Stewart EJ, Warren RB, Waxman R, Wilson HE, Helliwell PS. Psoriatic arthritis screening tools: Study design and methodologic challenges - reply from authors. British Journal of Dermatology 2014, 170(4), 995-996.
- Saunders SP, Goh CSM, Brown SJ, Palmer CNA, Porter RM, Cole C, Campbell LE, Gierlinski M, Barton GJ, Schneider G, Balmain A, Prescott AR, Weidinger S, Baurecht H, Kabesch M, Gieger C, Lee YA, Tavendale R, Mukhopadhyay S, Turner SW, Madhok VB, Sullivan FM, Relton C, Burn J, Meggitt S, Smith CH, Allen MA, Barker JNWN, Reynolds NJ, Cordell HJ, Irvine AD, McLean WHI, Sandilands A, Fallon PG. Tmem79/Matt is the matted mouse gene and is a predisposing gene for atopic dermatitis in human subjects. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2013, 132(5), 1121-1129.
- Jans R, Mottram L, Johnson DL, Brown AM, Sikkink S, Ross K, Reynolds NJ. Lysophosphatidic Acid Promotes Cell Migration through STIM1- and Orai1-Mediated Ca2+i Mobilization and NFAT2 Activation. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 2013, 133(3), 793-802.
- Mottram L, Begg M, Reynolds NJ. NFAT and NFkB activation and keratinocyte migration post-wounding is dependent on extracellular calcium concentration and SOCE. In: 2013 International Investigative Dermatology Meeting. 2013, Edinburgh: Nature Publishing Group.
- Thomas KS, Crook AM, Nunn AJ, Foster KA, Mason JM, Chalmers JR, Nasr IS, Brindle RJ, English J, Meredith SK, Reynolds NJ, de Berker D, Mortimer PS, Williams HC. Penicillin to Prevent Recurrent Leg Cellulitis. New England Journal of Medicine 2013, 368(18), 1695-1703.
- Wu KCP, Reynolds NJ. Predicting response to anti-interleukin 12/23 treatment in psoriasis. British Journal of Dermatology 2013, 169(2), 240-241.
- Aljefri K, Hampton PJ, Reynolds NJ. Predictors of response to increasing the dose of etanercept: results of an audit. In: 93rd Annual Meeting of the British Association of Dermatologists. 2013, Liverpool: Wiley-Blackwell.
- Weatherhead SC, Farr PM, Reynolds NJ. Spectral effects of UV on psoriasis. Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences 2013, 12(1), 47-53.
- Fullard N, Moles A, O'Reilly S, van Laar JM, Faini D, Diboll J, Reynolds NJ, Mann DA, Reichelt J, Oakley F. The c-Rel Subunit of NF-κB Regulates Epidermal Homeostasis and Promotes Skin Fibrosis in Mice. American Journal of Pathology 2013, 182(6), 2109-2120.
- Hampton PJ, Jans R, Flockhart R, Parker G, Reynolds NJ. Lithium regulates keratinocyte proliferation via glycogen synthase kinase 3 and NFAT2 (nuclear factor of activated T cells 2). Journal of Cellular Physiology 2012, 227(4), 1529-1537.
- Wu K, Reynolds NJ. Pharmacogenetic screening to prevent carbamazepine-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome: a critical appraisal. British Journal of Dermatology 2012, 166(1), 7-11.
- Burden AD, Warren RB, Kleyn CE, McElhone K, Smith CH, Reynolds NJ, Ormerod AD, Griffiths CEM, BADBIR Study Grp. The British Association of Dermatologists' Biologic Interventions Register (BADBIR): design, methodology and objectives. British Journal of Dermatology 2012, 166(3), 545-554.
- Meggitt SJ, Anstey AV, Mustapa MFM, Reynolds NJ, Wakelin S. British Association of Dermatologists' guidelines for the safe and effective prescribing of azathioprine 2011. British Journal of Dermatology 2011, 165(4), 711-734.
- Wahie S, Daly AK, Cordell HJ, Goodfield MJ, Jones SK, Lovell CR, Carmichael AJ, Carr MM, Drummond A, Natarajan S, Smith CH, Reynolds NJ, Meggitt SJ. Clinical and Pharmacogenetic Influences on Response to Hydroxychloroquine in Discoid Lupus Erythematosus: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 2011, 131(10), 1981-1986.
- Weatherhead SC, Farr PM, Jamieson D, Hallinan JS, Lloyd JL, Wipat A, Reynolds NJ. Keratinocyte Apoptosis in Epidermal Remodeling and Clearance of Psoriasis Induced by UV Radiation. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 2011, 131(9), 1916-1926.
- Fearon P, Lonsdale-Eccles AA, Ross OK, Todd C, Sinha A, Allain F, Reynolds NJ. Keratinocyte secretion of cyclophilin B via the constitutive pathway is regulated through its cyclosporin-binding site. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 2011, 131(5), 1085-1094.
- Wahie S, McColl E, Reynolds NJ, Meggitt SJ. Measuring disease activity and damage in cutaneous lupus erythematosus. British Journal of Dermatology 2011, 164(1), 221-222.
- Smith CH, Anstey AV, Barker JNWN, Burden AD, Chalmers RJG, Chandler DA, Finlay AY, Griffiths CEM, Jackson K, McHugh NJ, McKenna KE, Reynolds NJ, Ormerod AD, Chair Guideline Grp. British Association of Dermatologists' guidelines for biologic interventions for psoriasis 2009. British Journal of Dermatology 2009, 161(5), 987-1019.
- Brown SJ, Relton CL, Liao H, Zhao Y, Sandilands A, McLean WH, Cordell HJ, Reynolds NJ. Filaggrin haploinsufficiency is highly penetrant and is associated with increased severity of eczema: further delineation of the skin phenotype in a prospective epidemiological study of 792 school children. British Journal of Dermatology 2009, 161(4), 884-889.
- Flockhart RJ, Armstrong JL, Reynolds NJ, Lovat PE. NFAT signalling is a novel target of oncogenic BRAF in metastatic melanoma. British Journal of Cancer 2009, 101(8), 1448-1455.
- Brown SJ, Relton CL, Liao H, Zhao Y, Sandilands A, Wilson IJ, Burn J, Reynolds NJ, McLean WH, Cordell HJ. Filaggrin null mutations and childhood atopic eczema: A population-based case-control study. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2008, 121(4), 940-946.
- Flockhart R, Diffey BL, Farr PM, Lloyd JJ, Reynolds NJ. NFAT regulates induction of COX-2 and apoptosis of keratinocytes in response to ultravioloet radiation exposure. FASEB Journal 2008, 22(12), 4218-4227.
- Brown SJ, Sandilands A, Zhao Y, Liao H, Relton CL, Meggitt SJ, Trembath RC, Barker JNWN, Reynolds NJ, Cordell HJ, McLean WHI. Prevalent and low-frequency null mutations in the filaggrin gene are associated with early-onset and persistent atopic eczema. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 2008, 128(6), 1591-1594.
- Ross K, Whitaker M, Reynolds NJ. Agonist-induced calcium entry correlates with STIM1 translocation. Journal of Cellular Physiology 2007, 211(3), 569-576.
- Weatherhead S, Wahie S, Reynolds NJ, Meggitt SJ. An open-label, dose-ranging study of methotrexate for moderate-to-severe adult atopic eczema. British Journal of Dermatology 2007, 156(2), 346-351.
- Hampton PJ, Ross OK, Reynolds NJ. Increased nuclear β-catenin in suprabasal involved psoriatic epidermis. British Journal of Dermatology 2007, 157(6), 1168-1177.
- Barker JNWN, Palmer CNA, Zhao Y, Liao H, Hull PR, Lee SP, Allen MH, Meggitt SJ, Reynolds NJ, Trembath RC, McLean WHI. Null mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) determine major susceptibility to early-onset atopic dermatitis that persists into adulthood. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 2007, 127(3), 564-567.
- Weatherhead S, Robson SC, Reynolds NJ. Pregnancy plus - Eczema in pregnancy. British Medical Journal 2007, 335(7611), 152-154.
- Weatherhead S, Robson SC, Reynolds NJ. Pregnancy plus - Management of psoriasis in pregnancy. British Medical Journal 2007, 334(7605), 1218-1220B.
- Brown S, Reynolds NJ. Atopic and non-atopic eczema. British Medical Journal 2006, 332(7541), 584-588.
- Meggitt SJ, Gray JC, Reynolds NJ. Azathioprine dosed by thiopurine methyltransferase activity for moderate-to-severe atopic eczema: A double-blind, randomised controlled trial. The Lancet 2006, 367(9513), 839-846.
- Ekelund E, Saaf A, Tengvall-Linder M, Melen E, Link J, Barker J, Reynolds NJ, Meggitt SJ, Kere J, Wahlgren C-F, Pershagen G, Wickman M, Nordenskjold M, Kockum I, Bradley M. Elevated expression and genetic association links the SOCS3 gene to atopic dermatitis. American Journal of Human Genetics 2006, 78(6), 1060-1065.
- Veal CD, Reynolds NJ, Meggitt SJ, Allen MH, Lindgren CM, Kere J, Trembath RC, Barker JNWN. Absence of association between asthma and high serum immunoglobulin E associated GPRA haplotypes and adult atopic dermatitis . Journal of Investigative Dermatology 2005, 125(2), 399-401.
- Smith CH, Anstey AV, Barker JNWN, Burden AD, Chalmers RJG, Chandler D, Finlay AY, Grifitths CEM, Jackson K, McHugh NJ, McKenna KE, Reynolds NJ, Ormerod AD. British Association of Dermatologists guidelines for use of biological interventions in psoriasis 2005. British Journal of Dermatology 2005, 153(3), 486-497.
- Hampton PJ, Reynolds NJ. Calcineurin inhibitors for the treatment of skin disease: How do they work?. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 2005, 35(5), 549-550.
- McGill A, Frank A, Emmett N, Turnbull DM, Birch-Machin MA, Reynolds NJ. The anti-psoriatic drug anthralin accumulates in keratinocyte mitochondria, dissipates mitochondrial membrane potential, and induces apoptosis through a pathway dependent on respiratory competent mitochondria. FASEB Journal 2005, 19(8), 1012-1014.
- McBride SR, Walker P, Reynolds NJ. Optimising the frequency of outpatient short contact dithranol treatment: a randomised, within patient controlled trial. British Journal of Dermatology 2003, 149(6), 1259-1265.
- Al-Daraji WI, Grant KR, Ryan K, Saxton A, Reynolds NJ. Localization of calcineurin/NFAT in human skin and psoriasis and inhibition of calcineurin/NFAT activation in human keratinocytes by cyclosporin A. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 2002, 118(5), 779-788.
- Meggitt SJ, Reynolds NJ. Azathioprine for atopic dermatitis. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology 2001, 26(5), 369-375.
- Reynolds NJ, Franklin V, Gray JC, Diffey BL, Farr PM. Narrow-band ultraviolet B and broad-band ultraviolet A phototherapy in adult atopic eczema: A randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2001, 357(9273), 2012-2016.
- Todd C, Reynolds NJ. Up-regulation of p21(WAF1) by phorbol ester and calcium in human keratinocytes through a protein kinase C-dependent pathway. American Journal of Pathology 1998, 153(1), 39-45.