Professor Richard Davies
PVC, Engagement & Internationalisation
- Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Telephone: +44 (0)191 208 6058/5060
- Address: School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences,
Newcastle upon Tyne.
Professor Richard Davies is a petroleum geologist who started his career in the mining industry of South Africa. After his degree and PhD he worked in the oil and gas sector, spending 8 years in the petroleum industry in Aberdeen, London and Houston with ExxonMobil working on development and exploration projects. This included working one of the UK's biggest oil field developments in the 1990s in the UK’s North Sea followed by what were in the 1990s the deepest water wells every drilled by a semi-submersible rig, west of Shetlands (UK) and lastly exploration wells drilled 100s of miles offshore of Nigeria.
He moved from Houston to Cardiff in 2003 as a senior lecturer and then moved to Durham University in 2006 as a Professor. Much - but not all - of his academic career has been defined by research questions that in some way stem from issues that society or the commercial world faces, that also yield research papers that are internationally significant. In 2009 he became Professor of Energy and Director of Durham Energy Institute in 2011 Dean of Knowledge Exchange and Impact. In 2014 he joined Newcastle University where he is Pro-Vice Chancellor for Engagement and Internationalisation.
My Google Scholar web link is:
Research and Research Leadership
He left industry in 2003 as the full potential of 3D seismic reflection data for the understanding sedimentary basins was being realized and was part of a small number of academics who pioneered its use in structural geology, sedimentology and soft sediment deformation. Most recently he has published on what he argues is one of the world’s best seismically imaged of marine gas hydrates which has yielded several cutting edge papers.
Professor Davies has also led major department and pan-university research initiatives in the field of energy. This started in the field of geo-energy (e.g. fossil fuels, carbon capture and storage) and then across the spectrum of energy research, through the founding of Durham Energy Institute at Durham University. Davies' remit with the institute was to build it from concept to a fully functioning institute which had National and International recognition. In 2014 he moved to Newcastle University where he is now Pro-Vice Chancellor for Engagement and Internationalisation.
Research and Engagement
Since 2007, Professor Davies has developed a strong track in record researching the risks associated with oil and gas activities, often because society wanted answers to pressing questions. From 2007 to 2010 he led an international team that showed that the Lusi mud volcano that caused 40,000 Indonesian’s to lose their homes was almost certainly triggered by drilling for gas rather than being a natural disaster. He is now working on the risks associated with fracking within a pan-European consortium ‘ReFINE’ (Researching Fracking in Europe) that he leads (www.refine.org.uk). He is staunchly agnostic about whether or not fracking is a technology that nation states use but adamant that there is a pressing need for more reliable, peer-reviewed research. His role is to remain unbiased and seek to do the best science possible to help inform the public, governments and other decision makers.
My Google Scholar web link is:
I taught and led teaching at Cardiff and Durham Universities (2003-2014) but have not teaching responsibilities at the moment.
- Boothroyd IM, Almond S, Qassim SM, Worrall F, Davies RJ. Fugitive emissions of methane from abandoned, decommissioned oil and gas wells. Science of the Total Environment 2016, 547, 461-469.
- Li A, Davies RJ, Yang J. Gas trapped below hydrate as a primer for submarine slope failures. Marine Geology 2016, epub ahead of print.
- Goodman PS, Galatioto F, Thorpe N, Namdeo AK, Davies RJ, Bird RN. Investigating the traffic-related environmental impacts of hydraulic fracturing (Fracking) operations. Environment International 2016, 89-90, 248-260.
- Davies RJ, Yang JX, Li A, Mathias S, Hobbs R. An irregular feather-edge and potential outcrop of marine gas hydrate along the Mauritanian margin. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 2015, 423, 202-209.
- Wilson MP, Davies RJ, Foulger GR, Julian BR, Styles P, Gluyas JG, Almond S. Anthropogenic earthquakes in the UK: A national baseline prior to shale exploitation. Marine and Petroleum Geology 2015, 68(Part A), 1-17.
- Davies RJ, Herringshaw LG. How should fracking research be funded?. Research Ethics 2015, ([Epub ahead of print]).
- Rudolph ML, Manga M, Tingay M, Davies RJ. Influence of seismicity on the Lusi mud eruption. Geophysical Research Letters 2015, 42, 7436-7443. In Preparation.
- Tingay MRP, Rudolph ML, Manga M, Davies RJ, Wang CY. Initiation of the Lusi mudflow disaster. Nature Geoscience 2015, 8(7), 493-494.
- Davies RJ, Almond S, Ward RS, Jackson RB, Adams C, Worrall F, Herringshaw LG, Gluyas JG, Whitehead MA. Reply: "Oil and gas wells and their integrity: Implications for shale and unconventional resource exploitation". Marine and Petroleum Geology 2015, 59, 674-675.
- Davies RJ, Almond S, Ward RS, Jackson RB, Adams C, Worrall F, Herringshaw LG, Gluyas JG, Whitehead MA. Oil and gas wells and their integrity: Implications for shale and unconventional resource exploitation. Marine and Petroleum Geology 2014, 56, 239-254.
- Jackson RB, Vengosh A, Carey JW, Davies RJ, Darrah TH, O'Sullivan F, Petron G. The Environmental Costs and Benefits of Fracking. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 2014, 39, 327-362.
- Leduc AM, Davies RJ, Swarbrick RE, Imber J. Fluid flow pipes triggered by lateral pressure transfer in the deepwater western Niger Delta. Marine and Petroleum Geology 2013, 43, 423-433.
- Yang J, Davies RJ, Huuse M. Gas migration below gas hydrates controlled by mass transport complexes, offshore Mauritania. Marine and Petroleum Geology 2013, 48, 366-378.
- Yang J, Davies RJ. Gravity-driven faults: Migration pathways for recycling gas after the dissociation of marine gas hydrates. Marine Geology 2013, 336, 1-9.
- Davies R, Foulger G, Bindley A, Styles P. Induced seismicity and hydraulic fracturing for the recovery of hydrocarbons. Marine and Petroleum Geology 2013, 45, 171-185.
- Watton TJ, Jerram DA, Thordarson T, Davies RJ. Three-dimensional lithofacies variations in hyaloclastite deposits. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 2013, 250, 19-33.
- Hedley BJ, Davies RJ, Mathias SA, Hanstock D, Gluyas JG. Uncertainty in static CO2 storage capacity estimates: Case study from the North Sea, UK. Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology 2013, 3(3), 212-230.
- Wright KA, Davies RJ, Jerram DA, Morris J, Fletcher R. Application of seismic and sequence stratigraphic concepts to a lava-fed delta system in the Faroe-Shetland Basin, UK and Faroes. Basin Research 2012, 24(1), 91-106.
- Davies RJ, Thatcher KE, Mathias SA, Yang J. Deepwater canyons: An escape route for methane sealed by methane hydrate. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 2012, 323-324, 72-78.
- Davies RJ, Mathias SA, Moss J, Hustoft S, Newport L. Hydraulic fractures: How far can they go?. Marine and Petroleum Geology 2012, 37(1), 1-6.
- Rodriguez JAP, Bourke M, Tanaka KL, Miyamoto H, Kargel J, Baker V, Fairén AG, Davies RJ, Bridget L, Santiago RL, Hernández MZ, Berman DC. Infiltration of Martian outflow channel floodwaters into lowland cavernous systems. Geophysical Research Letters 2012, 39(22), L22201.
- Maloney D, Davies R, Imber J, King S. Structure of the footwall of a listric fault system revealed by 3D seismic data from the Niger Delta. Basin Research 2012, 24(1), 107-123.
- Leduc AM, Davies RJ, Densmore AL, Imber J. The lateral strike-slip domain in gravitational detachment delta systems: A case study of the northwestern margin of the Niger Delta. AAPG Bulletin 2012, 96(4), 709-728.
- Davies RJ, Thatcher KE, Armstrong H, Yang J, Hunter S. Tracking the relict bases of marine methane hydrates using their intersections with stratigraphic reflections. Geology 2012, 40(11), 1011-1014.
- Davies R, Manga M, Tingay M, Swarbrick R. Discussion: Fluid transport properties and estimation of overpressure at the Lusi mud volcano, East Java Basin (Tanikawa et al., 2010). Engineering Geology 2011, 121(1-2), 97-99.
- Ireland MT, Goulty NR, Davies RJ. Influence of stratigraphic setting and simple shear on layer-bound compaction faults offshore Mauritania. Journal of Structural Geology 2011, 33(4), 487-499.
- Davies RJ, Ireland MT. Initiation and propagation of polygonal fault arrays by thermally triggered volume reduction reactions in siliceous sediment. Marine Geology 2011, 289(1-4), 150-158.
- Davies RJ. Methane contamination of drinking water caused by hydraulic fracturing remains unproven. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2011, 108(43), E871.
- Roberts KS, Stewart SA, Davies RJ, Evans RJ. Sector collapse of mud volcanoes, Azerbaijan. Journal of the Geological Society 2011, 168(1), 49-60.
- Roberts KS, Davies RJ, Stewart SA, Tingay M. Structural controls on mud volcano vent distributions: examples from Azerbaijan and Lusi, East Java. Journal of the Geological Society 2011, 168(4), 1013-1030.
- Richardson SEJ, Davies RJ, Allen MB, Grant SF. Structure and evolution of mass transport deposits in the South Caspian Basin, Azerbaijan. Basin Research 2011, 23(6), 702-719.
- Ireland MT, Davies RJ, Goulty NR, Carruthers D. Structure of a silica diagenetic transformation zone: the Gjallar Ridge, offshore Norway. Sedimentology 2011, 58(2), 424-441.
- Davies RJ, Mathias SA, Swarbrick RE, Tingay M. The Lusi mud volcano, East Java: how long will it last?. Journal of the Geological Society 2011, 168(2), 517-524.
- Ireland MT, Davies RJ, Goulty NR, Moy DJ. Thick slides dominated by regular-wavelength folds and thrusts in biosiliceous sediments on the Vema Dome offshore of Norway. Marine Geology 2011, 289(1-4), 34-45.
- Wall M, Cartwright J, Davies R, McGrandle A. 3D seismic imaging of a Tertiary Dyke Swarm in the Southern North Sea, UK. Basin Research 2010, 22(2), 181-194.
- Davies R, Manga M, Tingay M, Lusianga S, Swarbrick R. Discussion: Sawolo et al. (2009) the Lusi mud volcano controversy: Was it caused by drilling?. Marine and Petroleum Geology 2010, 27(7), 1651-1657.
- Neagu RC, Cartwright J, Davies R, Jensen L. Fossilisation of a silica diagenesis reaction front on the mid-Norwegian margin. Marine and Petroleum Geology 2010, 27(10), 2141-2155.
- Lentini MR, Fraser SI, Sumner HS, Davies RJ. Geodynamics of the central South Atlantic conjugate margins: implications for hydrocarbon potential. Petroleum Geoscience 2010, 16(3), 217-229.
- Ireland MT, Goulty NR, Davies RJ. Influence of pore water chemistry on silica diagenesis: evidence from the interaction of diagenetic reaction zones with polygonal fault systems. Journal of the Geological Society 2010, 167, 273-279.
- Neagu RC, Cartwright J, Davies R. Measurement of diagenetic compaction strain from quantitative analysis of fault plane dip. Journal of Structural Geology 2010, 32(5), 641-655.
- Davies RJ, Clarke AL. Methane recycling between hydrate and critically pressured stratigraphic traps, offshore Mauritania. Geology 2010, 38(11), 963-966.
- Maloney D, Davies R, Imber J, Higgins S, King S. New insights into deformation mechanisms in the gravitationally driven Niger Delta deep-water fold and thrust belt. AAPG Bulletin 2010, 94(9), 1401-1424.
- Roberts KS, Davies RJ, Stewart SA. Structure of exhumed mud volcano feeder complexes, Azerbaijan. Basin Research 2010, 22(4), 439-451.
- Husse M, Jackson CAL, Van Rensbergen P, Davies RJ, Flemings PB, Dixon RJ. Subsurface sediment remobilization and fluid flow in sedimentary basins: an overview. Basin Research 2010, 22(4), 342-360.
- Meadows D, Davies RJ. The limited suitability of silica diagenetic boundaries as isothermal markers: Insights from seismic reflection imaging, Offshore Sakhalin, Russian Far East. Marine and Petroleum Geology 2010, 27(5), 1028-1039.
- Briggs SE, Cartwright J, Davies RJ. Crustal structure of the deepwater west Niger Delta passive margin from the interpretation of seismic reflection data. Marine and Petroleum Geology 2009, 26(6), 936-950.
- Davies RJ, Ireland MT, Cartwright JA. Differential compaction due to the irregular topology of a diagenetic reaction boundary: a new mechanism for the formation of polygonal faults. Basin Research 2009, 21(3), 354-359.
- Alves TM, Cartwright J, Davies RJ. Faulting of salt-withdrawal basins during early halokinesis: Effects on the Paleogene Rio Doce Canyon system (Espírito Santo Basin, Brazil). AAPG Bulletin 2009, 93(5), 617-652.
- Higgins S, Clarke B, Davies RJ, Cartwright J. Internal geometry and growth history of a thrust-related anticline in a deep water fold belt. Journal of Structural Geology 2009, 31(12), 1597-1611.
- Davies RJ. Lusi Mud Volcano. In: McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology. New York; London: McGraw-Hill, 2009, pp.197-199.
- Meadows D, Davies RJ. Predicting porosity reduction due to silica diagenesis using seismic reflection data. Marine and Petroleum Geology 2009, 26(8), 1543-1553.
- Wall MLT, Cartwright J, Davies RJ. Reply to discussion on 'An Eocene age for the proposed Silverpit Impact Crater' Journal, Vol. 165, 781–794. Journal of the Geological Society 2009, 166(6), 1159-1160.
- Abidin HZ, Davies RJ, Kusuma MA, Andreas H, Deguchi T. Subsidence and uplift of Sidoarjo (East Java) due to the eruption of the Lusi mud volcano (2006–present). Environmental Geology 2009, 57(4), 833-844.
- Briggs SE, Davies RJ, Cartwright J, Morgan R. Thrusting in oceanic crust during continental drift offshore Niger Delta, equatorial Africa. Tectonics 2009, 28(1), TC1004.
- Heiniö P, Davies RJ. Trails of depressions and sediment waves along submarine channels on the continental margin of Espirito Santo Basin, Brazil. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 2009, 121(5-6), 698-711.
- Wall MLT, Cartwright J, Davies RJ. An Eocene age for the proposed Silverpit Impact Crater. Journal of the Geological Society 2008, 165(4), 781-794.
- Davies RJ, Goulty NR, Meadows D. Fluid flow due to the advance of basin-scale silica reaction zones. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 2008, 120(1-2), 195-206.
- Davies RJ, Brumm M, Manga M, Rubiandini R, Swarbrick R, Tingay M. The East Java mud volcano (2006 to present): An earthquake or drilling trigger?. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 2008, 272(3-4), 627-638.
- Evans RJ, Stewart SA, Davies RJ. The structure and formation of mud volcano summit calderas. Journal of the Geological Society 2008, 165(4), 769-780.
- Tingay T, Heidbach O, Davies R, Swarbrick R. Triggering of the Lusi mud eruption: Earthquake versus drilling initiation. Geology 2008, 36(8), 639-642.
- Higgins S, Davies RJ, Clarke B. Antithetic fault linkages in a deep water fold and thrust belt. Journal of Structural Geology 2007, 29, 1900-1914.
- Davies RJ, Swarbrick RE, Evans RJ, Huuse M. Birth of a mud volcano: East Java, 29 May 2006. GSA Today 2007, 17(2), 4-9.
- Evans RJ, Davies RJ, Stewart SA. Internal structure and eruptive history of a kilometre-scale mud volcano system, South Caspian Sea. Basin Research 2007, 19(1), 153-163.
- Davies RJ, Cartwright JA. Kilometer-scale chemical reaction boundary patterns and deformation in sedimentary rocks. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 2007, 262(1-2), 125-137.
- Heiniö P, Davies RJ. Knickpoint migration in submarine channels in response to fold growth, western Niger Delta. Marine and Petroleum Geology 2007, 24(6-9), 434-449.
- Meadows D, Davies RJ. Morphological development of basin-scale silica diagenetic fronts revealed with 2D seismic reflection data: offshore Sakhalin, Russian Far East. Journal of the Geological Society 2007, 164(6), 1193-1206.
- Evans RJ, Stewart SA, Davies RJ. Phase-reversed seabed reflections in seismic data: examples related to mud volcanoes from the South Caspian Sea. Geo-Marine Letters 2007, 27(2-4), 203-212.
- Posamentier HW, Davies RJ, Cartwright JA, Wood L. Seismic geomorphology - an overview. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 2007, 277, 1-14.
- Heiniö P, Davies RJ. Degradation of compressional fold belts: Deep-water Niger Delta. AAPG Bulletin 2006, 90(5), 753-770.
- Davies RJ, Huuse M, Hirst P, Cartwright J, Yang Y. Giant clastic intrusions primed by silica diagenesis. Geology 2006, 34(11), 917-920.
- Briggs SE, Davies RJ, Cartwright JA, Morgan R. Multiple detachment levels and their control on fold styles in the compressional domain of the deepwater west Niger Delta. Basin Research 2006, 18(4), 435-450.
- Stewart SA, Davies RJ. Structure and emplacement of mud volcano systems in the South Caspian Basin. AAPG Bulletin 2006, 90(5), 771-786.
- Davies RJ, Clark IR. Submarine slope failure primed and triggered by silica and its diagenesis. Basin Research 2006, 18(3), 339-350.
- Davies RJ, Gras R, Payre X. A vision for 3D seismic technology and visualization. In: Petroleum Geology: North-West Europe and Global Perspectives - Proceedings of the 6th Petroleum Geology Conference. 2005, London: The Geological Society.
- Davies RJ. Differential compaction and subsidence in sedimentary basins due to silica diagenesis: A case study. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 2005, 117(9-10), 1146-1155.
- Davies RJ, Stewart SA. Emplacement of giant mud volcanoes in the South Caspian Basin: 3D seismic reflection imaging of their root zones. Journal of the Geological Society 2005, 162(1), 1-4.
- Davies RJ, Posamentier HW. Geologic processes in sedimentary basins inferred from three-dimensional seismic imaging. GSA Today 2005, 15(10), 4-9.
- Davies RJ, MacLeod CJ, Morgan R, Briggs SE. Termination of a fossil continent-ocean fracture zone imaged with three-dimensional seismic data: The Chain Fracture Zone, eastern equatorial Atlantic. Geology 2005, 33(8), 641-644.
- Robinson AM, Cartwright JA, Burgess PM, Davies RJ. 3D seismic analysis of complex delta top incision: an example from the Eocene of the Faroe-Shetland Basin. In: Davies, RJ, Cartwright, JA, Stewart, SA, Lappin, M & Underhill, JR, ed. 3D Seismic Technology: Application to the Exploration of Sedimentary Basins. London: Geological Society, 2004, pp.73-82.
- Davies RJ, Stewart SA, Cartwright JA, Lappin M, Johnston R, Fraser SI, Brown AR. 3D seismic technology: are we realising its full potential?. In: Davies, RJ, Cartwright, JA, Stewart, SA, Lappin, M & Underhill, JR, ed. 3D Seismic Technology: Application to the Exploration of Sedimentary Basins. London: Geological Society, 2004, pp.1-9.
- Davies R, Cloke I, Cartwright J, Robinson A, Ferrero C. Post-breakup compression of a passive margin and its impact on hydrocarbon prospectivity: An example from the Tertiary of the Faeroe–Shetland Basin, United Kingdom. AAPG Bulletin 2004, 88(1), 1-20.
- Davies RJ. Kilometer-scale fluidization structures formed during early burial of a deep-water slope channel on the Niger Delta. Geology 2003, 31(11), 949-952.
- Trude J, Cartwright J, Davies RJ, Smallwood J. New technique for dating igneous sills. Geology 2003, 31(9), 813-816.
- Davies RJ, Cartwright J. A fossilized Opal A to Opal C/T transformation on the northeast Atlantic margin: support for a significantly elevated Palaeogeothermal gradient during the Neogene?. Basin Research 2002, 14(4), 467-486.
- Davies R, Bell BR, Cartwright JA, Shoulders S. Three-dimensional seismic imaging of Paleogene dike-fed submarine volcanoes from the northeast Atlantic margin. Geology 2002, 30(3), 223-226.
- Davies R, Cartwright J, Pike J, Line C. Early Oligocene initiation of North Atlantic Deep Water formation. Nature 2001, 410, 917-920.
- Davies RJ, Turner JD, Underhill JR. Sequential dip-slip fault movement during rifting: a new model for the evolution of the Jurassic trilete North Sea rift system. Petroleum Geoscience 2001, 7, 371-388.
- Davies R, Cartwright J, Rana J. Giant hummocks in deep-water marine sediments: Evidence for large-scale differential compaction and density inversion during early burial. Geology 1999, 27(10), 907-910.
- Davies RJ, O'Donnell D, Bentham PN, Gibson JPC, Curry MR, Dunay RE, Maynard JR. The origin and genesis of major Jurassic unconformities within the triple junction area of the North Sea, UK. In: Petroleum Geology of Northwest Europe: Proceedings of the 5th Conference. 1999, London: Geological Society.
- Stephen KJ, Davies RJ. Documentation of Jurassic sedimentary cycles from the Moray Firth basin UK North Sea. In: de Graciasky, PC, Hardenbol, J, Jacquin, T, Farley, M and Vail, PR, ed. Mesozoic and Cenozoic sequence stratigraphy of European basins. Tulsa: SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), 1998.
- Davies RJ, Stephen KS, Underhill JR. A re-evaluation of the Middle and Upper Jurassic stratigraphy and flooding history of the Moray Firth rift system, North Sea. In: Hurst, A, Johnson, HD, Burley, SD, Canham, AC and Mackertich, DS, ed. Geology of the Humber Group: Central Graban and Moray Firth. London: Geological Society, 1996, pp.81-108.
- ReFINE, Davies RJ, Almond S. Abandoned UK Wells: Do they leak?. 2016. Available at: http://www.refine.org.uk/research/wellintegritypollution/abandonedukwellsdotheyleak/.
- ReFINE, Davies RJ, Almond S. What is the impact of road traffic generated by fracking?. 2016. Available at: http://www.refine.org.uk/research/trafficinfrastructure/whatistheimpactoffracking-relatedtraffic/.
- ReFINE, Davies RJ, Almond S. How many man-made earthquakes pre-fracking?. 2015. Available at: http://www.refine.org.uk/research/seismicity/howmanyman-madeearthquakespre-fracking/.
- ReFINE, Davies RJ, Almond S. What could be done to improve the UK fracking debate?. 2015. Available at: http://www.refine.org.uk/research/social/whatcanwedotoimprovetheukfrackingdebate/.
- ReFINE, Davies RJ, Almond S. Well integrity and drilling for shale gas: Is the UK well prepared?. 2014. Available at: http://www.refine.org.uk/research/wellintegritypollution/wellintegrityanddrillingforshalegas/.
- ReFINE, Davies RJ, Almond S. How radioactive is fracking flowback water?. 2014. Available at: http://www.refine.org.uk/research/wellintegritypollution/howradioactiveisfrackingflowbackwater/.
- ReFINE, Davies RJ, Almond S. What size of earthquakes can be caused by fracking?. 2013. Available at: http://www.refine.org.uk/research/seismicity/whatsizeearthquakescanbecausedbyfracking/.
- ReFINE, Davies RJ, Almond S. Fracking & Aquifers: How far up can a frack go?. 2012. Available at: http://www.refine.org.uk/research/fracturessubsidence/frackingaquifershowfarupcanafrackgo/.
- Boothroyd IM, Almond S, Worrall F, Davies RJ. Assessing the fugitive emission of CH4 via migration along fault zones – Comparing potential shale gas basins to non-shale basins in the UK. Science of the Total Environment 2017, 580, 412-424.
- Williams L, Macnaghten P, Davies R, Curtis S. Framing "fracking': Exploring public perceptions of hydraulic fracturing in the United Kingdom. Public Understanding of Science 2017, 26(1), 89-104.
- Yang J, Davies R, Xiao D, Miao X, Zhang Y. Distributions of BSR and underlying free gas zones and related controlling factors. Shiyou yu Tianranqi Dizhi [Oil and Gas Geology] 2016, 37(1), 87-92.
- Phethean JJJ, Kalnins LM, van Hunen J, Biffi PG, Davies RJ, McCaffrey KJW. Madagascar's escape from Africa: A high-resolution plate reconstruction for the Western Somali Basin and implications for supercontinent dispersal. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 2016, 17(12), 5036-5055.