Least Squares Adjustment for Offshore Survey

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Least Squares Adjustment for Offshore Survey

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This intermediate/advanced course is offered in association with Fugro. It provides geomatics professionals with an opportunity to strengthen their Least Squares and Statistical Analysis skills.

Topics covered include:

  • Error analysis and concepts of least squares
  • Efficient data handling using matrices
  • Review of fundamental concepts including:
    • differentiation and linearisation
    • the least squares process from ground up
    • statistical testing

Course Outline

  • Day 1
    • Introduction
    • Why Least Squares? + Survey Error
    • Review of Matrices
    • Matrix Manipulation in Excel
    • Review of Differentiation
    • Linearisation and Error Propagation
    • The Functional model
    • Linearisation Exercise
    • The Stochastic Model
  • Day 2
    • The Least Squares Principle
    • Least Squares by Observation Equations
    • Deriving Observation Equations
    • Exercise: Observation Equation Derivation
    • The Approach to Least Squares and Flowchart
    • A Simple Practical Example of Least Squares
    • Box-In Example: Least Squares Estimation
  • Day 3
    • Simple Statistical Theory
    • Statistical Testing
    • Box-In Example: Outlier Detection
    • Post Least Squares Analysis
    • Box-In Example: Post Least Squares Analysis
    • Box-In Tutorial

Update to course content

Please note that our courses are reviewed regularly, both in response to feedback and so that information about recent research and developments can be included. Thus, content may be subject to change.

Who are the courses aimed at?

The course will have particular value for those working in the fields of offshore and land surveying, together with other high precision positioning applications such as GNSS. Software programmers in related fields will also find the course of benefit.


School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences


  • Least Squares Adjustment for Offshore Survey
    • £925 (duration 3 days)

We offer a 30 percent discount to full time students and to Newcastle University staff.

The course fee includes tuition, course materials, lunch and refreshments.

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