1987 Ph.D., University of Hull, "Mutation and the syntactic structure of Modern Colloquial Welsh". Supervisor: Nigel B. Vincent (Professor, University of Manchester). External examiner: Professor R.D. Borsley, University of Essex.
1979 B.A. (Hons.) Linguistics, University of Hull.
Department of Linguistics, University of Durham, 1983-2004 (as Lecturer, Senior Lecturer and Reader)
Celtic linguistics, language origins and evolution, language typology, morphology, morphosyntax.
Particular Interests include:
Together with Kathleen Gibson, I am editor of The Oxford Handbook of Language Evolution, published by Oxford University Press in 2012. Here, sixty leading scholars present critical accounts of every aspect of the field. The volume's five parts are devoted to insights from comparative animal behaviour; the biology of language evolution (anatomy, genetics, and neurology); the prehistory of language (when and why did language evolve?); the development of a linguistic species; and language creation, transmission, and change. More details:
My most recent paper in evolutionary linguistics (published in Language Sciences, 2014) is titled No syntax saltation in language evolution, and argues against the idea that narrow syntax arose recently and suddenly. It also critiques the idea that externalization - using language for communication - was secondary to the use of language purely for internal thought. The arguments draw on evidence from the lexicon and from syntactic displacement.
Other recent work in evolutionary linguistics includes papers on the origins of the lexicon and various critiques of the idea of holistic and musical protolanguage. I have argued in a series of papers in favour of a lexical protolanguage, a pre-language system putatively used by our ancestors over half a million years ago. Another recent paper (Kin selection, pedagogy and linguistic complexity: whence protolanguage? 2013) considers proposals that kin selection is an important driving force behind the evolution of language, and argues that in fact, this cannot be a major selection pressure.On the Celtic side of my work, along with Bob Borsley (Essex) and David Willis (Cambridge), I published The Syntax of Welsh (Cambridge University Press) in 2007. I have published over many years accounts of Welsh syntactic soft mutation, arguing in favour of the XP Trigger Hypothesis. The most recent account is a paper in Journal of Linguistics, which compares a phrase-based account of syntactic soft mutation with a dependency account.
I am involved in The Syntactic Atlas of Welsh Dialects. This project is run by David Willis (Cambridge), with myself and Bob Borsley (Essex), and aims to establish the extent of variation in the syntax of present-day Welsh, including age-related variation and variation due to linguistic background, as well as geogrpahical variation. Specifically, its aims are:
The 4th edition of my textbook with Routledge, Understanding Syntax, is newly published (2015)
I welcome applications from suitably qualified students who are interested in postgraduate work in the following fields:
I would also be interested in supervising dissertations on any aspect of cross-linguistic syntax or morphosyntax, particularly within a typological or Principles-and-Parameters framework, and any other aspects of language evolution.
I teach the following modules:
SEL3005 Language origins and evolution
SEL8003 Evolutionary Linguistics
SEL1028 Introduction to Language Structure 2: Morphology
SEL2084 The Syntax of the World’s Languages
SEL8029 Introduction to Cross-linguistic Syntax
Consultation and feedback hours: Monday 16.00, Tuesday 14.00, Wednesday 10.00