School of Engineering

Neuro-prosthesis Lab

Neuro-Prosthesis Lab

Overview

The Neuroprosthesis laboratory is part of the µSystems group at the School of Engineering, Newcastle.

Our primary interest is in developing neural stimulators and state of the art implantable systems for the new field of optogenetic neuroprosthesis.

We also hope to both generate new understanding in core neurobiology and use neuroinspired designs to make better circuits and systems.

Our Neuroprosthesis lab has facilities for electronic development and testing, and is used for research and study. The lab includes the latest source measure units, oscilloscopes, soldering and PCB prototyping facilities. It also contains an augmented reality testing environment with surround screen and emgain, Sony, and vuzix virtual reality headwear.

We have 5 high power workstations for GPU and CUDA development, online servers with the Cadence design suite for advanced CMOS chip design, and the latest Xilinx FPGA's and associated tools for digital logic design. Additionally we have software for PCB and MEMS mask development.

The School also has a Characterisation Lab and two clean room facilities. 

Read more about our work, with The Neuro Prosthesis Lab: Knowledge Centre (PDF: 144KB)

Neuro-Electronics

Our primary interest is in developing state of the art implantable systems. Along the way we hope to better understand neural tissue we aim to stimulate.

Find out more about our research into Hybrid Bio-Electronic Systems and CMOS-MEMS based Bio-microsystems.

Hybrid Bio-Electronic Systems

Next-generation brain-machine interfaces will consist of hybrid networks, where individual neurons will be directly connected to electronics in a real-time closed-loop system. This will allow for further investigation into the behaviour and functionality of the brain, increasing our knowledge of the most complex system known to man.

Further, by creating a hybrid bio-electronic network future neural prosthesis may offer the ability to influence the behaviour of neural circuits, presenting the opportunity to restore, repair or replace damaged brain regions. This technology could have implications with a wide-range of medical conditions, including epilepsy and Parkinson’s.

The development of this technology will rely heavily on the electronic design, in particular, low-power but high-performing processing platforms.

Therefore, the research objectives of this project are:

  • To investigate the potential of reconfigurable hardware in hybrid systems
  • To implement a complete model of a central pattern generator and to connect this model to an in-vitro biological system, to investigate the behaviour and dynamics of the hybrid network
  • To develop an optimised single-chip spiking neural network platform capable of large-scale simulation

CMOS-MEMS based Bio-microsystem

Microsystems based on interplay between CMOS and MEMS technologies are a promising way for neuroprosthesis. Traditionally the biomedical circuits are custom-built and heavily optimised for a specific application, which makes it expensive and time-consuming to adapt them for new healthcare objectives.

The CMOS-MEMS integration technologies will be used to achieve closed-loop control system with multi-sensors and multi-actuators. Different types of typical biomedical MEMS sensors (pressure sensor, accelerometer, recording microelectrodes) and actuators (motor, optical stimulator, stimulation microelectrodes) will be chosen and integrated in this proposed microsystem for diverse neuroprosthesis applications.

Relavent conference papers

  • Jun Wen Luo, Terrence Mak, Peter Andras, Alex Yakovlev FPGA-based simulation of the pyloric circuit of the crab stomatogastric ganglionNeuroscience 2012 , New Orleans, October 2012
  • Graeme Coapes, Terrence Mak, Jun Wen Luo, and Alex Yakovlev, Chi-Sang Poon scalable FPGA-based design for field programmable large-scale ion simulations International Conference on Field Programmable Logic and Applications ,Oslo, Norway, August, 2012
  • Jun Wen Luo, Terrence Mak, Bo Yu, Peter Andras, Alex Yakovlev Towards Neuro-Silicon Interface Using Reconfigurable Dynamic EMBCBoston, USA, January 2011

Relavent journal papers 
  • Banks DJ, Degenaar P, Toumazou C. Low-power pulse-width-modulated neuromorphic spiking circuit allowing signed double byte data transfer along a single channel. Electronics Letters 2007, 43(13), 704-706.
  • Nikolic K, Loizu J, Degenaar P, Toumazou C. Noise reduction in analogue computation of Drosophilia photoreceptors. Journal of Computational Electronics 2008, 7(3), 458-461.
  • Degenaar P, Constandinou TG, Toumazou C. Adaptive ON-OFF spiking photoreceptor. Electronics Letters 2006, 42(4), 196-198.
  • Banks DJ, Degenaar P, Toumazou C. Distributed current-mode image processing filters. Electronics Letters 2005, 41(22), 1201-1202.

Retinal Prosthesis

Our work in the Neuroprosthesis lab is to develop the optoelectronics to make retinal prosthesis treatment work.

According to the Royal National Institute for the Blind (RNIB), there are 2 million people with visual impairment in the UK, of which 180,922 were registered as partially sighted in 2005. The most common cause of impairment is

  • retinal degeneration (48.5%)
  • Glaucoma (11.5%)
  • diabetic retinopathy (3.4%)
While proportions of hereditary diseases such as Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) remain fixed, the increasingly ageing population and expanding waistlines are enhancing the prevalence of aged related macula degenerations and diabetic retinopathies respectively.
 
Furthermore the rate of retinopathies in premature babies is around 16%. The (American) National Federation for the Blind estimate that it costs the state $600,000 in a lifetime of support and unpaid taxes for each blind person. The social cost to the individual is of course incalculable.

While refractive errors can be corrected with glasses and cataracts via surgery, degeneration of the photoreceptor cells is much less treatable. In particular, despite ongoing research into gene, drug and stem cell therapies, there is no treatment for Retinitis Pigmentosa. Thus, restoration of vision through optobionic means are presently the main hope for this patient group.

Optogenetic Retinal Prosthesis

Retinal implants to date have used electrical stimulus to stimulate either the retinal ganglion cells and/or the remaining retinal circuitry layers (i.e. bipolar and amacrine cells). They have been powered via electrical cable, wireless telemetry or via optical IR illumination. Both sub-retinal and epi-retinal approaches have been shown to be capable of generating phosphene percepts, but Neuroelectronic interfaces suffer from many fundamental drawbacks:

  • electrical stimulus can excite neurons but not inhibit them
  • it's not possible to target individual cells or receptive fields with present technology
  • scalability to large arrays of electrodes is difficult
  • power dissipation in the retina becomes a problem for large arrays of stimulators

The electrical response elicited by neuron cells results from changes in differential ion concentrations across the cell membrane. Action potentials in particular result from the activity of electric field gated ion channels. Thus the traditional electrical stimulation method aims to activate these channels with electrical impulses. However, the difficulty in placing the electrodes near the desired neuron and the propagation of the electric field disallows exact control.

Thus, if it were possible to control the ion channels directly with a remote control light source, there would be many advantages. At the end of 2003, a light-activated ion channel called Channelrhodopsin was discovered in the swamp algae. Since then there has been an explosion of research demonstrating the ability to control many different parts of the nervous system with this technique.

Genetically introduced light gated channels provide a unique opportunity to develop a whole new class of retinal prosthesis. A photostimulation-based prosthesis would be fully external, would not suffer the power problems of electrical stimulation, and could be easily tuned and upgraded. The basis for our work in the Neuroprosthesis lab is to develop the optoelectronics to make this work.

Journal papers 

  • Al-Atabany W, McGovern B, Mehran K, Berlinguer-Palmini R, Degenaar P. A processing platform for optoelectronic/optogenetic retinal prosthesis. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 2011, 1-10.
  • McGovern B, Palmini RB, Grossman N, Drakakis E, Poher V, Neil MAA, Degenaar P. A New Individually Addressable Micro-LED Array for Photogenetic Neural Stimulation. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems 2010, 4(6, part 2), 469-476.
  • Grossman N, Poher V, Grubb MS, Kennedy GT, Nikolic K, McGovern B, Palmini RB, Gong Z, Drakakis EM, Neil MAA, Dawson MD, Burrone J, Degenaar P. Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array. Journal of Neural Engineering 2010, 7(1), 016004.
  • Huang Y, Drakakis EM, Degenaar P, Toumazou C. A CMOS image sensor with light-controlled oscillating pixels for an investigative optobionic retinal prosthesis system. Microelectronics Journal 2009, 40(8), 1202-1211.
  • Degenaar P. Elucidating the nervous system with channelrhodopsins. Cell Science Reviews 2009, 6(1), 1-13.
  • Kim H, Degenaar P, Kim Y. Insertion of a cytochrome c protein into a complex lipid monolayer under an electric field. Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2009, 113(32), 14377-14380.
  • Degenaar P, Grossman N, Memon MA, Burrone J, Dawson M, Drakakis E, Neil M, Nikolic K. Optobionic vision: a new genetically enhanced light on retinal prosthesis. Journal of Neural Engineering 2009, 6(3), 035007.

Augmented vision

Find out about our research work in the field of Augmented Vison.

Retinal degenerative disease can lead to very poor vision, and in some cases (Retinitis Pigmentosa) complete blindness. As the conditions progress, daily tasks such as reading and determining people’s faces become increasingly difficult. Retinal prosthesis will at least in this initial period, also not restore perfect vision.

There is thus great scope for electronic systems which maximize the useful information being transmitted to the user. Textures which help us to distinguish between wood and plastic are perhaps less important in comparison being able to distinguish between a table and a chair.

As such, augmented vision systems aim to re-interpret the visual world so as to emphasize the key features of that world.

Research

We are investigating information acquisition and processing systems to perform augmented visual tasks. In particular it is of crucial importance to develop architectures which are scalable to portable solutions. As such we have been emphasizing GPU and power efficient processing architectures.

We have been developing a functional model of the degenerate retina by performing patient trials in the John Radcliffe (Oxford) and Western Eye (London) Hospitals.

We aim to develop a set of image enhancement algorithms which are most effective at improving visual recognition. We are also using our knowledge of the incredibly efficient parallel processing structures of the retina to implement our algorithms in highly efficient silicon architectures.

At present we use commercial virtual reality headwear but are investigating more compact systems.


Relevant Journal papers 

Al-Atabany W, McGovern B, Mehran K, Berlinguer-Palmini R, Degenaar P. A processing platform for optoelectronic/optogenetic retinal prosthesis. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 2011, 1-10.
Al-Atabany WI, Memon MA, Downes SM, Degenaar PA. Designing and testing scene enhancement algorithms for patients with retina degenerative disorders. BioMedical Engineering Online 2010, 9, 27.
Al-Atabany W, Tong T, Degenaar P. Improved content aware scene retargeting for retinitis pigmentosa patients. BioMedical Engineering OnLine 2010, 9, 52.

Publications

Journal papers 

  • John Barrett, Rolando Berlinguer-Palmini, Patrick Deganaar Optogenetic approaches to retinal Prosthesis Visual Neuroscience, Vol 31 (4,5), 2014.
  • Kardoulaki EM, Glaros KN, Degenaar P, Katsiamis AG, Ip HMD, Drakakis EM. Measured hyperbolic-sine (sinh) CMOS results: A high-order 10 Hz-1 kHz notch filter for 50/60 Hz noise. Microelectronics Journal 2013 44(12), 1268-1277.
  • Nam S, Kim H, Degenaar P, Ha CS, Kim Y. Extremely slow photocurrent response from hemoprotein films in planar diode geometry. Applied Physics Letters 2012, 101, 223701.
  • Parittotokkaporn T, Thomas DGT, Schneider A, Huq E, Davies BL, Degenaar P, Rodriguez-y-Baena F. Microtextured Surfaces for Deep-Brain Stimulation Electrodes: A Biologically Inspired Design to Reduce Lead Migration. World Neurosurgery 2012, 77(3-4), 569-576.
  • Al-Atabany W, McGovern B, Mehran K, Berlinguer-Palmini R, Degenaar P. A processing platform for optoelectronic/optogenetic retinal prosthesis. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 2011, 1-10.
  • McGovern B, Palmini RB, Grossman N, Drakakis E, Poher V, Neil MAA, Degenaar P. A New Individually Addressable Micro-LED Array for Photogenetic Neural Stimulation. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems 2010, 4(6, part 2), 469-476.
  • Grossman N, Nikolic K, Toumazou C, Degenaar P. Modeling Study of the Light Stimulation of a Neuron Cell With Channelrhodopsin-2 Mutants. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 2011, 58(6), 1742-1751.
  • Nikolic K, Loizu J, Degenaar P, Toumazou C. A stochastic model of the single photon response in Drosophila photoreceptors. Integrative Biology 2010, 2, 354-370.
  • Al-Atabany WI, Memon MA, Downes SM, Degenaar PA. Designing and testing scene enhancement algorithms for patients with retina degenerative disorders. BioMedical Engineering Online 2010, 9, 27.
  • Al-Atabany W, Tong T, Degenaar P. Improved content aware scene retargeting for retinitis pigmentosa patients. BioMedical Engineering OnLine 2010, 9, 52.
  • Grossman N, Poher V, Grubb MS, Kennedy GT, Nikolic K, McGovern B, Palmini RB, Gong Z, Drakakis EM, Neil MAA, Dawson MD, Burrone J, Degenaar P. Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array. Journal of Neural Engineering 2010, 7(1), 016004.
  • Huang Y, Drakakis EM, Degenaar P, Toumazou C. A CMOS image sensor with light-controlled oscillating pixels for an investigative optobionic retinal prosthesis system. Microelectronics Journal 2009, 40(8), 1202-1211.
  • Degenaar P. Elucidating the nervous system with channelrhodopsins. Cell Science Reviews 2009, 6(1), 1-13.
  • Kim H, Degenaar P, Kim Y. Insertion of a cytochrome c protein into a complex lipid monolayer under an electric field. Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2009, 113(32), 14377-14380.
  • Degenaar P, Grossman N, Memon MA, Burrone J, Dawson M, Drakakis E, Neil M, Nikolic K. Optobionic vision: a new genetically enhanced light on retinal prosthesis. Journal of Neural Engineering 2009, 6(3), 035007.
  • Nikolic K, Grossman N, Grubb MS, Burrone J, Toumazou C, Degenaar P. Photocycles of channelrhodopsin-2. Photochemistry and Photobiology2009, 85(1), 400-411.
  • Chen LC, Degenaar P, Bradley DDC. Polymer transfer printing: application to layer coating, pattern definition, and diode dark current blocking. Advanced Materials 2008, 20(9), 1679-1683.
  • Poher V, Grossman N, Kennedy GT, Nikolic K, Zhang HX, Gong Z, Drakakis EM, Gu E, Dawson MD, French PMW, Degenaar P, Neil MAA. Micro-LED arrays: a tool for two-dimensional neuron stimulation. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 2008, 41(9), 094014.
  • Banks DJ, Degenaar P, Toumazou C. Low-power pulse-width-modulated neuromorphic spiking circuit allowing signed double byte data transfer along a single channel. Electronics Letters 2007, 43(13), 704-706.
  • Nikolic K, Loizu J, Degenaar P, Toumazou C. Noise reduction in analogue computation of Drosophilia photoreceptors. Journal of Computational Electronics 2008, 7(3), 458-461.
  • Degenaar P, Constandinou TG, Toumazou C. Adaptive ON-OFF spiking photoreceptor. Electronics Letters 2006, 42(4), 196-198.
  • Banks DJ, Degenaar P, Toumazou C. Distributed current-mode image processing filters. Electronics Letters 2005, 41(22), 1201-1202.
  • Akagi Y, Hashigasako A, Degenaar P, Iwabuchi S, Hasan Q, Morita Y, Tamiya E. Enzyme-linked sensitive fluorometric imaging of glutamate release from cerebral neurons of chick embryos. Journal of Biochemistry 2003, 134(3), 353-358.
  • Griscom L, Degenaar P, Le Pioufle B, Tamiya E, Fujita H. Cell placement and neural guidance using a three-dimensional microfludic array.Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 2001, 40(9A), 5485-5490.
  • Degenaar P, Le Pioufle B, Griscom L, Tixier A, Akagi Y, Morita Y, Murakami Y, Yokoyama K, Fujita H, Tamiya E. A method for micrometer resolution patterning of primary culture neurons for SPM analysis. Journal of Biochemistry 2001, 130(3), 367-376.

Conference papers 

  • Al-Atabany W, Degenaar P. Scene Optimization for Optogenetic Retinal Prosthesis. In: IEEE Conference on Biomedical Circuits and Systems.2011, San Diego, California, USA: IEEE.
  • McGovern B, Drakakis EM, Neil N, O'Brian P, Corbett B, Berlinguer-Palmini R, Degenaar P. Individually addressable optoelectronic arrays for optogenetic neural stimulation. In: IEEE Conference on Biomedical Circuits and Systems. 2011, San Diego, California, USA: IEEE.
  • Parittotokkaporn T, Frasson L, Schneider A, Davies BL, Degenaar P, Rodriguez-y-Baena F. Insertion experiments of a biologically inspired microtextured and multi-part probe based on reciprocal motion. In: IEEE International Conference of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC). 2010, Buenos Aires, Argentina: IEEE.
  • Grossman N, Nikolic K, Poher V, McGovern B, Drankasis E, Neil M, Toumazou C, Degenaar P. Photostimulator for optogenetic retinal prosthesis.In: 4th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (NER '09). 2009, Antalya, Turkey: IEEE.
  • Degenaar P, Grossman N, Berlinguer-Palmini R, McGovern B, Pohrer V, Drakakis E, Dawson M, Toumazou C, Burrone J, Nikolic K, Neil M.Optoelectronic microarrays for retinal prosthesis. In: IEEE Conference on Biomedical Circuits and Systems. BioCAS 2009. 2009, Beijing: IEEE Xplore.
  • Parittotokkaporn T, Frasson L, Schneider A, Huq SE, Davies BL, Degenaar P, Biesenack J, Rodriguez y Baena FM. Soft tissue traversal with zero net force: Feasibility study of a biologically inspired design based on reciprocal motion. In: 2008 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO). 2009, Bangkok, Thailand: IEEE.
  • Huang Y, Drakakis EM, Toumazou C, Degenaar P. A CMOS image sensor with spiking pixels for retinal stimulation. In: IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). 2008, Seattle, WA:
  • Atabany W, Degenaar P. A robust edge enhancement approach for low vision patients using scene simplification. In: Cairo International Biomedical Engineering Conference (CIBEC 2008). 2008, Cairo, Egypt.
  • Frasson L, Parittotokkaporn T, Schneider A, Davies BL, Vincent JFV, Huq SE, Degenaar P, Rodriguez y Baena FM. Biologically inspired microtexturing: Investigation into the surface topography of next-generation neurosurgical probes. In: 30th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS 2008). 2008, Vancouver, Canada: IEEE.
  • Atabany W, Degenaar P. Parallelism to reduce power consumption on FPGA spatiotemporal image processing. In: IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). 2008, Seattle, WA:
  • Banks D, Degenaar P, Toumazou C. A bio-inspired adaptive retinal processing neuron with multiplexed spiking outputs. In: IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). 2007, New Orleans, LA.
  • Nikolic K, Grossman N, Yan H, Drakakis E, Toumazou C, Degenaar P. A non-invasive retinal prosthesis - testing the concept. In: 29th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS 2008). 2007, Lyon, France
  • Constandinou TG, Degenaar P, Toumazou C. An adaptable foveating vision chip. In: IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 2006). 2006, Kos, Greece:
  • Huang y, Drakakis EM, Toumazou C, Nikolic K, Degenaar P. An optoelectronic platform for retinal prosthesis. In: IEEE Conference on Biomedical Circuits and Systems. 2006, London, UK:
  • Nikolic K, Degenaar P, Toumazou C. Modeling and engineering aspects of ChannelRhodopsin2 system for neural photostimulation. In: 28th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology (EMBS). 2006, New York, NY: IEEE.
  • Gamez MA, Degenaar P. Reducing collision noise in asynchronous vision chips. In: 49th IEEE International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS '06). 2006, San Juan, PR:
  • Constandinou T, Degenaar P, Bradley D, Toumazou C. An on/off spiking photoreceptor for adaptive ultrafast/ultrawide dynamic range vision chips. In: 2004 IEEE International Workshop on Biomedical Circuits and Systems. 2004, Singapore
  • Griscom L, Degenaar P, Denoual M, Morin F. Culturing of neurons in microfludic arrays. In: 2nd Annual International IEEE-EMBS Special Topic Conference on Microtechnologies in Medicine and Biology. 2002, Madison, WI:
  • Al-Atabany W, Memon M, Downes S, Degenaar P. Vision Improvement for Patients with Retinal Degeneration. In: The Seventh IASTED International Conference on Biomedical Engineering (BioMed). 2010, Innsbruck, Austria
  • Griscom L, Degenaar P, Le Pioufle B, Tamiya E, Fujita H. Techniques for patterning and guidance of primary culture neurons on micro-electrode arrays. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 2002, 83(1-3), 15-21.
  • Griscom L, Degenaar P, Le Pioufle B, Tamiya E, Fujita H. Soft lithographic techniques for guidance of hippocampal neurons on micro-electrode arrays. In: 11th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators. 2001, Munich, Germany: Springer-Verlag.
  • Degenaar P, Murakami Y, Yokoyama K, Tamiya E, Le Pioufle B, Fujita Y. Near-field imaging of neurotransmitter release and uptake in patterned neuron networks. In: 2nd Conference on Scanning and Force Microscopies for Biomedical Applications. 2000, San Jose, CA: Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

 Books

  • Degenaar P, Banks D. Analog Retinomorphic Circuitry to Perform Retinal and Retinal Inspired Processing. In: Bharath, Anil and Petrou, Maria, ed. Next Generation Artificial Vision Systems: Reverse Engineering the Human Visual System. Boston: Artech House, 2008, pp.289-333.
  • Degenaar P, Nikolic K, Banks D, Chen L. Organic semiconductor photoreceptors to mimic human rods and cones. In: Bharath, Anil and Petrou, Maria, ed. Next Generation Artificial Vision Systems: Reverse Engineering the Human Visual System. Boston: Artech House, 2008.
  • Degenaar P, Tamiya E. Near-field optics in biology. In: Fujita, Hiroyuki, ed. Micromachines as Tools for Nanotechnology. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2003, pp.83-120.
  • Yanagida T, Tamiya E, Muramatsu H, Degenaar P, Ishii Y, Sako Y, Saito K, Ohta-Iino S, Ogawa S, Marriott G, Kusumi A, Tatsumi H. Near-field microscopy for biomolecular systems. In: Kawata, S; Ohtsu, M; Irie, M, ed. Nano-Optics. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2002, pp.191-236.

 

Funding

We heartily thank the following entities for their support and concern about curing the blindness through their funding.

Prior Funding

2013-2013 EPSRC Equipment award 
2012-2013 eFuture XD
2012-2013 EPSRC Nanotechnology Sandpit >
2011-2012 EPSRC Knowledge Transfer account 
2011-2011 Human Plus award 
2010-2011 Foundation Thierri Latran 
2009-2010 The RSE/BBSRC for funding Dr Grossman's Enterprize fellowship 
2008-2011 The Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (F021127) 
2008-2011 The Engineering and Physical Research Council ( EP/F029241/1) 
2007-2010 The Egyptian Government for funding Dr Al Atabany's PhD studies 
2007-2011 The Thai government for funding Dr Parittokoporn's PhD studies 
2006-2007 Royal Society Research fund 
2005-2008 University of London Central Research Fund (AR/CRF/B) 
2005-2007 Advance Nanotech 
2005-2010 RCUK for funding Dr Degenaar's RCUK Academic Fellowship (EP/E500641/1) 
1997-2001 Monbugakusho for funding Dr Degenaar's PhD studies in Japan 

Current funding 

2014–2021 EPSRC/Wellcome Trust – CANDO
2013-2015 Newcastle BMRC
2013-2015 Macular Disease Society
2010-2014 European commission - OptoNeuro FP7 project (www.optoneuro.eu)

International PhD scholarship funding

2013-2015 European commission – Erasmus Mundus student exchange 

2012-2015 China CSC – Hubin Zhao 
2012-2015 Jordan University – Musa Al Yaman 
2012-2015 Iraqi Government – Nabeel Fattah 
2007-2010 Thai Government – Tassanai Parritokoporn 
2007-2010 Egyptian Government – Walid Al Atabany