Dr Alan J Murphy
Reader in Maritime Engineering
- Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Telephone: +44 (0) 191 208 8207
- Address: Marine, Offshore and Subsea Technology
School of Engineering
Newcastle upon Tyne
A Brief History
I still recall the precise event that gave me my unerring passion for the sea and the pursuit of a career in the maritime world – I was aged 17 and, having never been to sea before (beyond the occasional ferry trip to the Isle of Wight!), I went on a two-week residential outward-bound course on the Sail Training Ship, STS Sir Winston Churchill (owned then by the Sail Training Association (STA)). From that moment I was hooked. Since then I have sailed for pleasure including on other tall ships and sailing yachts. This also inexorably led me to begin my working life by undertaking a dual cadetship in the Merchant Navy qualifying in 1995 as both a Deck and Engineer Officer with Shell Shipping. Having spent approximately a decade serving at sea I subsequently undertook my BEng at Newcastle University achieving a First Class degree in Marine Technology with honours in Naval Architecture.
I read for my PhD in the Fluid-Structure Interaction Research Group at the University of Southampton, gaining the Stanley Grey Fellowship (IMarEST) and the Froude Scholarship (RINA). My research, ‘The Design, Production and Testing of a Laminar Flow Based Drag Plate’, included programming and using computational fluid-dynamics codes, practical engineering and captive model testing in a towing tank. This work was funded by the UK MoD, through QinetiQ.
Owing to my previous professional sea-going background, I developed and taught a number of modules throughout the duration of my PhD studies. I was awarded my PhD in May 2005 and was appointed as a Research Fellow in Ship Science at the University of Southampton from 2004 where I headed the research into freak waves within the Lloyds Register University Technology Centre. I also worked with the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton (NOCS) during that time, on UK MoD-supported research studying air-independent power sources suitable for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs).
I joined Newcastle University in 2007 with a portfolio of research and teaching in the field of Maritime Engineering, drawing on my expertise from both my Merchant Navy Marine Engineering experiences and those relating to naval architecture and experimental hydrodynamics, from my academic studies.
Roles and Responsibilities
I am now a member of the Senior Management Team in the Faculty of Science Agriculture and Engineering (SAgE) as the Associate Dean, Science and Engineering. In this role I lead on one of the most ambitious strategic projects for transformational change the faculty has undertaken in decades under the title of “Science and Engineering Excellence”. I have developed, updated and communicated an exciting vision for the future direction of the faculty to integrate the core science and engineering disciplines, to deliver multidisciplinary and specialist education programmes and research outputs of international significance. This is underpinning the development of a master plan for capital investment for new and rejuvenated buildings and infrastructure.
In this role I regularly contribute to Faculty Steering Group and Executive Board and to key policy proposals at University Executive level. I also work with significant external stakeholders to the university, including the UK Research Councils (RCUK) and senior business leaders.
Since joining Newcastle University in 2007 and prior to my appointment as Associate Dean I have also held a wide variety of other significant leadership roles and responsibilities including:
Head (and founder) of the Sustainable Shipping and Marine Engineering Research Group (SSMERG)
Theme Leader for Research Group marineNewcastle
Stream director of the suite of UG and PG Marine Engineering degree programmes
Director of Excellence in Learning and Teaching
Chair of Board of Studies
Member of Faculty Learning and Teaching Committee
Led the professional accreditation of all of the Marine Technology degree programmes
Led the Internal Subject Reviews of the Marine Technology degree programmes
Senior tutor for the Marine Technology students
Member on Postgraduate Research student progression panels
Admissions Selector for the Marine Technology Degree Programmes (UK campus and Singapore Campus)
Director of our Marine Engineering Systems Laboratories (Jones Laboratory)
School Executive Board Member
Chair on the University Student Disciplinary Committee
Member of the University Value for Money Working Group
Member of the SAgE Faculty Diversity Steering Group
Director of Operations at the Singapore campus (carried out as ‘flying-faculty’)
2009 Newcastle University Teaching Award
2008 Chartered Engineer and Chartered Marine Engineer (CEng, CMarEng)
2005 PhD; Design, Build and Testing of a Laminar Flow Drag Plate (University of Southampton, UK)
2000 BEng Marine Technology, with honours in Naval Architecture, Class I. (University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK)
1995 Class 4 Certificate of competency in the merchant navy – Marine Engineer Officer, steamship & motor ship
1995 Class 3 Certificate of competency in the merchant navy – Deck Officer
1995 Part 1 Higher National Diploma Marine Technology (Engineering) – Overall grade: Distinction (SouthTyneside College)
1993 National Diploma Marine Technology (Engineering) – Overall grade: Distinction (South Tyneside College)
Learned Societies and External Committee Membership
I am active in the learned societies and, by invitation, on a number of external national and international committees. These include:
Fellow, Institute of Marine Engineering, Science and Technology (FIMarEST)
Member, Royal Institution of Naval Architects (MRINA)
Institute of Marine Engineering, Science and Technology & Royal Institution of Naval Architects North East Coast Joint Branch: Chair & Vice Chair
Royal Institution of Naval Architects: Membership Committee
Fellow of the Higher Education Academy (FHEA)
International Ship and Offshore Structures Congress (ISSC)
UK standing committee member for the international conference for the practical design of ships (PRADS)
South Tyneside College, Marine Faculty, Strategic Advisory Board Member
Invited member of the Canadian First Research Excellence Framework (CFREF) advisory panel, advising the Canadian government on the strategic allocation of research funding over a number of years
Invited member of the Marine and Maritime future road mapping steering group for Innovate_UK (expert advisor for the strategic allocation of UK government research funding to the marine industry)
Science Engineering and Technology Ambassador (SETNET)
With a professional sea-going marine engineering start to my career, coupled with a subsequent academic education in naval architecture and experimental hydrodynamics, I have a broad base of research expertise ranging from the practical & applied to the scientific & fundamental across the broad theme of maritime engineering. And, I therefore somewhat contradict the ‘traditional’ adage that “oil and water do not mix” (something of a career theme, given I also started out with the dichotomy of dual deck and engine officer training in the Merchant Navy!).
Recently I have developed unique research broadly on the theme of ‘sustainable shipping’, setting myself as a leading international academic with a global profile in this vital grand-challenge. Around this I have developed a corpus of work, supported by numerous ‘gold-standard’ funders, tackling the issue of transitioning global shipping to low-carbon futures, whilst also mitigating and eliminating other forms of poisonous pollution. I have recruited many influential international consortia, in which I hold leadership positions, and include international & regional policy makers, many esteemed universities, government research agencies & industry leaders.
In this context, my input and expertise has led to e.g. policy recommendations at the highest level in the EU; attracted repeated funding to extend my research to other marine sectors including from EPSRC, EU, Innovate_UK; technological interventions, e.g. working with both local SMEs as well as global companies for ship-board emissions monitoring products and environmental classification; regular invitations to participate on international expert committees; and an award winning paper from the highest intellectual organisation in my field, the Royal Institution of Naval Architects.
The momentum I have gained in this field is considerable including my recent success in securing both UK government (Innovate_UK) and EU funding. Essentially, tackling one of the most fundamental grand challenges of our time, namely: given the world’s prosperity is reliant on ~90% of its goods moving on water-borne transport and significant amounts of its food and energy is derived from the oceans – how can this be achieved sustainably in the future?
Since my appointment to Newcastle University in 2007, my funded research projects include:
Nature in Engineering for the Monitoring of the Oceans (NEMO) (~£500k) an EPSRC funded project, in collaboration with the University of Southampton and the National Oceanography Centre, investigating the potential for bio-inspired (lessons learned from the natural world) applications for improving underwater vehicles. [http://gow.epsrc.ac.uk/NGBOViewGrant.aspx?GrantRef=EP/F066767/1]
Low Carbon Shipping – A Systems Approach (~£1.7M) in collaboration with four other major universities and ~15 industrial partners, looking at ways to reduce the carbon footprint of global shipping, funded by the EPSRC. [http://www.lowcarbonshipping.co.uk/ and http://gow.epsrc.ac.uk/NGBOViewGrant.aspx?GrantRef=EP/H019871/1]
Shipping in Changing Climates (SCC) (~£3.5M) a follow-on project from Low Carbon Shipping (LCS), including and building on the strong university and industry consortium, also funded by the EPSRC. [http://www.lowcarbonshipping.co.uk/ and http://gow.epsrc.ac.uk/NGBOViewGrant.aspx?GrantRef=EP/K039253/1]
I-CASE Studentship with Lloyds Register (Fully-funded PhD studentship at EPSRC fees and stipend rates). This PhD is investigating indexing schemes for ranking the environmental performance of ships and shipping.
Clean North Sea Shipping (CNSS), €4.1Million project funded by the EU, INTERREG IVB programme. This was in collaboration with 19+ international collaborators from a wide range of institutions across Europe including NGOs, regulators, industry and research institutions and ultimately made recommendations to the EU on reducing air pollution from regional shipping. For this project I was elected as the UK representative on the steering committee and hosted the annual Clean North Sea Shipping conference for this project. [http://archive.northsearegion.eu/ivb/projects/details/&tid=130 and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kQ_J2IHd0Jo]
Clean North Sea Shipping - Improved Dissemination and Impact. This project was an invited bid on completion of Clean North Sea Shipping on the basis it was ranked as one of top three for quality in its funding stream. We further disseminated the CNSS findings to fully realise their impact.
Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP) with Soil Machine Dynamics (SMD) (~£150k). Funded by Innovate_UK, this KTP worked with a local industry partner (SMD) to improve their design algorithms for launch and recovery from ships of remotely operated marine vehicles.
Dynamic Loads on Distributed Buoyancy Modules (~£22k). This is an industry funded project with a European company, Trellegorg, who, having noted our work with SMD, commissioned us to research how they could improve their design for buoyancy collars attached to subsea risers and pipelines during the launch and recovery operations from ships.
Whole Vessel Energy Management (~1.5M). This Innovate_UK funded project, working with a local industry partner, Royston, is creating consultancy expertise and monitoring products to reduce the energy consumption in shipping operations through better understanding the complex energy flows throughout ship systems.
CLean INland SHipping (CLINSH) (~€8Million). This project was an invited application from the European Commission's Directorate-General for the Environment, Air & Industrial Emissions Unit who had attended our final CNSS project conference and would like us to extend our research on reduction of air pollution to the inland shipping fleet across Europe. Similar to CNSS, this project comprises collaborators from a wide range of institutions across Europe including, regional policy makers, NGOs, regulators, industry and research institutions to tackle the issue. The consortium kick-off conference was in October 2016. [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hg_caVnekG0]
I also have a number of formalised research collaborations with industrial partners. And, for example, I have secured industrial support for a variety of projects, also leading to journal publications. One such publication, co-authored with industry partners, was awarded the Ian Telfer Prize, by the Royal Institution of Naval Architects for the best paper published in the Institution’s transactions on the subject of the environment. - Murphy, A. J., Weston, S. J. and Young, R. J., Reducing Fuel Usage and Exhaust Gas Emissions from Tug Boat Fleets: Sea Trials and Theoretical Modelling, Transactions of the Royal Institution of Naval Architects, Part A: International Journal of Maritime Engineering, 154, A31-A41, 2012.
Marine Engineering Science I (MAR1006) Module Leader
Marine Engineering Science II (MAR2003) Module Leader
Previous Teaching Duties:
Ship Resistance and Propulsion
Ship Science Induction Programme
Royal Academy of Engineering, Headstart, Engineering Summer School
The project "The effects of abnormal waves in tidal races on yachts and small craft" (Sally Denchfield) - Awarded the Lloyd's Register, best marine technology student, jugded by the IMarEST, at the 2006 Science, Engineering and Technology awards.
Other project topics include:
Gyroscopic stabilisation for ships and fast craft
Rogue and freak wave modelling and their effects on marine structures
Wind assisted propulsion for large commercial ships
Previous Teaching Duties:
Marine plant condition monitoring
EngD Ride control systems for fast craft and RIB Hydrodynamics
PhD Control systems for AUV intervention operations
- Gilbert P, Walsh C, Traut M, Kesieme U, Pazouki K, Murphy A. Assessment of full life-cycle air emissions of alternative shipping fuels. Journal of Cleaner Production 2018, 172, 855-866.
- Cipollini F, Oneto L, Coraddu A, Murphy AJ, Anguita D. Condition-Based Maintenance of Naval Propulsion Systems: Data Analysis with Minimal Feedbackof Naval Propulsion Systems. Reliability Engineering and System Safety 2017. Submitted.
- Lim S, Pazouki K, Murphy AJ. Holistic energy mapping methodology for reduced fuel consumption and emissions. In: ASME 2017 36th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering. 2017, Trondheim, Norway: ASME.
- Bashir MB, Evans M, Benson SD, Murphy AJ. Simulations of dynamic interaction between a bluff body and installation vessel during launch and recovery in rough seas. In: ASME 2017 36th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering. 2017, Trondheim, Norway: ASME.
- Emovon I, Norman RA, Murphy AJ. The development of a model for determining scheduled replacement Intervals for marine machinery systems. Proceedings of IMechE, Part M: Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment 2017, 231(3), 723-739.
- Emovon I, Norman RA, Murphy AJ. Elements of maintenance systems and tools for implementation within the framework of reliability centred maintenance - a review. Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology 2016, 8(2), 1-34.
- Emovon I, Norman RA, Murphy AJ. Methodology of using an integrated averaging technique and MAUT method for failure mode and effects analysis. Journal of Engineering and Technology 2016, 7(1), 140-155.
- Lim S, Carchen a, Pazouki K, Murphy AJ, Younessi S, Graham N. Systematic Rationale for assessing energy flow across the entire vessel operation. In: Energy Efficient Ships 2016. 2016, London, UK: Royal Institution of Naval Architects.
- Bashir MB, Menon M, Benson SD, Eastwood R, Murphy AJ, Cunny D, van Zwanenberg M. The Dynamic Behaviour of an ROV in Wave Affected Zones. In: 35th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering (OMAE 2016). 2016, Busan, South Korea: The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
- Emovon I, Norman RA, Murphy AJ, Pazouki K. An integrated multicriteria decision making methodology using compromise solution methods for prioritising risk of marine machinery systems. Ocean Engineering 2015, 105, 92-103.
- Trodden DG, Murphy A, Pazouki K. Evaluation of Emission Factors on the Estimation of NOx Formation from a Manoeuvring Ship. In: Shipping in Changing Climates 2015. 2015, Glasgow, UK.
- Trodden DG, Murphy AJ, Pazouki K, Sargeant J. Fuel Usage Data Analysis for Efficient Shipping Operations. Ocean Engineering 2015, 110(Part B), 75-84.
- Emovon I, Norman RA, Murphy AJ. Hybrid MCDM based methodology for selecting the optimum maintenance strategy for ship machinery systems. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing 2015, e-pub ahead of print.
- Bashir M, Benson S, Murphy AJ, Menon M, Eastwood R, Cunny D, Zwanenberg M. Hydrodynamic Characteristics of ROVs During Deployment Through Wave-Affected Zone. In: 34th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering. 2015, Newfoundland, Canada: ASME.
- Kesieme UK, Murphy AJ, Pazouki K. Life cycle assessment of upstream pathways towards environmentally effective biofuels for shipping. In: International Conference on Shipping in Changing Climate. 2015, Glasgow, UK.
- Trodden DG, Murphy AJ, Pazouki K. Marine Engine Simulation: A Design Tool for In-Service Operation. In: 12th International Marine Design Conference. 2015, Tokyo, Japan: The Japan Society of Naval Architects and Ocean Engineers.
- Trodden DG, Murphy AJ, Pazouki K, Woodward MD. The use of a Ship Simulator as a Tool for Exhaust Gas Emission Estimation. In: MARSIM 2015. 2015, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
- Murphy AJ, Norman AJ, Pazouki K, Trodden DG. Thermodynamic simulation for the investigation of marine Diesel engines. Ocean Engineering 2015, 102, 117-128.
- Phillips AB, Haroutunian M, Murphy AJ, Boyd SW, Blake JIR, Griffiths G. Understanding the power requirements of autonomous underwater systems, Part I: An analytical model for optimum swimming speeds and cost of transport. Ocean Engineering 2015, ePub ahead of Print.
- Emovon I, Norman RA, Murphy AJ. A New Tool for Prioritising the Risk of Failure Modes for Marine Machinery Systems. In: ASME 2014 33rd International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering OMAE 2014. 2014, San Francisco, California, USA: American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME).
- Emovon I, Norman RA, Murphy AJ, Kareem B. Delphi-AHP based methodology for selecting the optimum maintenance strategy for ship machinery systems. In: 15th Asia Pacific Industrial Engineering and Management (APIEMS 2014). 2014, Jeju, Korea.
- Lin Z, Tao L, Pu Y, Murphy AJ. Fully nonlinear solution of bi-chromatic deepwater waves. Ocean Engineering 2014, 91, 290-299.
- Murphy AJ, Shenoi RA, Townsend NC. Gyroscopic controllable moment generator adapted for use onboard a marine vessel. United Kingdom, GB2470961, 24/09/2014.
- Murphy AJ, Landamore MJ, Pazouki K, Gibson M. Modelling Ship Emission Factors and Emission Indices. In: Low Carbon Shipping Conference. 2013, London, UK.
- Baarholm GS, Cho DS, Cusano G, Drake K, Drummen I, Holtmann M, Hutchison B, Ji C, Leira B, Murphy AJ, Ogawa Y, Dhavalikar S, Söylemez M, Vaz M, Wu JF. Chapter II.2: Dynamic Response. In: 18th International Ship and Offshore Congress. 2012, Rostock, Germany.
- Murphy AJ, Pazouki K. Exhaust emissions prediction and mitigation. Naval Architect 2012, (May), 38-44.
- Murphy AJ, Pazouki K. Exhaust Gas Emissions from Regional Shipping: Mitigating Technologies and Emission Prediction. In: International conference on The Environmentally Friendly Ship. 2012, London: The Royal Institution of Naval Architects.
- Haroutunian M, Murphy AJ. Mission based Optimum System Selector for Bio-inspired Unmanned Untethered Underwater Vehicles. In: Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV2012). 2012, Southampton, UK.
- Phillips AB, Haroutunian M, Man KS, Murphy AJ, Boyd SW, Blake JIR, Griffiths G. Nature in Engineering for Monitoring the Oceans: Comparison of the energetic costs of marine animals and AUVs. In: Roberts, G.N., Sutton, R, ed. Further Advances in Unmanned Marine Vehicles. Piscataway, New Jersey, USA: Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET), 2012, pp.373-405.
- Murphy AJ. Reducing Fuel Usage and CO2 Emissions of a VWT - Theoretical modelling. In: 4th Hydrodynamic Symposium on Voith Schneider Technology. 2012, Heidenheim, Germany.
- Murphy AJ, Weston SJ, Young RJ. REDUCING FUEL USAGE AND CO2 EMISSIONS FROM TUG BOAT FLEETS: SEA TRIALS AND THEORETICAL MODELLING. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MARITIME ENGINEERING 2012, 154, A31-A41.
- Murphy AJ, Tam ICK. Staff Exchange Teaching Model for an Offshore Campus. In: IEEE International Conference on Teaching, Assessment and Learning for Engineering (TALE). 2012, Hong Kong: IEEE.
- Pazouki K, Murphy AJ. Clean North Sea Shipping – CNSS: Emission Reduction from Ships and Harbour Vessels. In: 4th International Conference on Marine Science and Technology for Environmental Sustainability, ENSUS2011. 2011, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
- Murphy AJ, Haroutunian M. Nature in Engineering for Monitoring the Oceans: using inspiration from nature to improve the capability of Underwater vehicles to monitor the ocean space. In: 4th International Conference on Marine Science and Technology for Environmental Sustainability, ENSUS2011. 2011, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
- Murphy AJ, Haroutunian M. Using Bio-Inspiration to Improve Capabilities of Underwater Vehicles. In: 17th International Symposium on Unmanned Untethered Submersible Technology (UUST). 2011, Portsmouth, Massachusetts, USA.
- Chaniotis P, Delany JE, Murphy AJ. Is shipping a sustainable form of transport for the 21st century?' Themed debate as a tool for enquiry-based and cross-curricular learning at Key Stage 3. School Science Review 2010, 92(338), 881-887.
- Murphy AJ, Birmingham RW. An investigation into a method for determining the stability of small craft without reference to hydrostatic data. Transactions of the Royal Institution of Naval Architects Part B: International Journal of Small Craft Technology 2009, 151, 23-36.
- Annicchiarico C, Branchereau S, Cho DS, Hutchison BL, Liu JH, Murphy AJ, Mumm H, Oestvold TK, Shuri H, Soylemez M, Wu JF. Chapter II.2 Dynamic Response. In: Proceedings of the 17th International Ship and Offshore Structures Congress. 2009, Seoul, Korea.
- Murphy AJ, Landamore MJ. A cost benefit analysis for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles for marine search and rescue operations. In: Royal Institution of Naval Architects International Conference: Surveillance, Search and Rescue Craft (SURV7). 2009, Poole, UK: Royal Institution of Naval Architects (RINA).
- Chaniotis PD, Delany JE, Murphy AJ. A tide for change: incorporating marine-themed teaching and learning into the Key Stage 3 National Curriculum. Teaching and Learning Update 2009, (24).
- Denchfield SS, Murphy AJ, Temeral P. A deep-water beach for laboratory generation of abnormal waves. In: Proceedings of Rogue Waves 2008 Workshop. 2008, Brest, France: Ifremer.
- Murphy AJ, Landamore MJ, Birmingham RW. The role of autonomous underwater vehicles for marine search and rescue operations. Underwater Technology 2008, 27(4), 195-205.
- Townsend N, Murphy AJ, Shenoi RA. A new active gyrostabiliser system for ride control of marine vehicles. Ocean Engineering 2007, 34(11-12), 1607-1617.
- Murphy AJ, Hearn GE. A practical and robust method to experimentally determine the location of the region of transition from laminar to turbulent flow on a towed body. Transactions of the Royal Institution of Naval Architects, Part A: International Journal of Maritime Engineering 2007, 149(1), 31-43.
- Murphy AJ, Temarel P. A Preliminary Investigation into the Effect of Abnormal Waves on Ship Structures. University of Southampton, 2007. Sea Systems Group of the Technical Enabling Service of the (UK MoD) Defence Procurment Agency.
- Jantapremjit P, Wilson PA, Murphy AJ. A Study of Autonomous Docking with an AUV Using Intelligent Controls. In: The International Conference on Underwater System Technology: Theory and Application 2006 (USYS06). 2006, Penang, Malaysia.
- Murphy AJ. Freak Waves. Southampton, UK: University of Southampton, 2006. Register University Technology Centre, Annual Progress Report.
- Murphy A. [PhD Thesis] Design, Build and Testing of a Laminar Flow Drag-Plate. Southampton, UK: University of Southampton, 2005. Ship Science, School of Engieering Sciences.
- Murphy AJ. Definition, classification and characterisation of freak waves. Southampton, UK: University of Southampton, 2005. Lloyds Register University Technology Centre Annual Progress Report.
- Murphy AJ. Drag on Underwater Vehicles: part of, BAUUV/Sub-Sea 7 progress report (classification, restricted). Southampton, UK: Southampton Oceanography Centre, 2004.
- Murphy AJ. Freak Waves Preliminary Investigation. Southampton, UK: University of Southampton, 2004. Lloyds Register University Technology Centre, Annual Progress Report.
- Murphy AJ. Summary of Alternative power sources/propulsion means for AUVs: part of the BAUUV/Sub-Sea 7 progress report (classification, restricted). Southampton, UK: Southampton Oceanography Centre, 2004.
- Murphy AJ. Presentation: Compliant Materials for Drag Reduction in Under Water Vehicles. In: Society of Underwater Technology Exhibition. 2003, Greenwich Maritime Museum, London.
- Fallows C, Furlong M, Hearn GE, Murphy AJ. AUV Design Improvement Using Systems Analysis, Hydrodynamics and System Identification Techniques. In: 3rd NRC-IMD Workshop on Control and Simulation for Underwater Vehicles. 2002, Newfoundland, Canada.