Dr Vasilis Sarhosis
Lecturer in Infrastructure Engineering
- Email: email@example.com
- Telephone: +44 (0) 1912085655
- Fax: +44 (0) 191 208 5322
- Personal Website: https://goo.gl/6azLsV.
- Address: Room 2.16
Newcastle upon Tyne
Dr Vasilis Sarhosis is a University Lecturer in Infrastructure Engineering at the School of Engineering, Newcastle University. Previously, he was a Research Associate at the School of Engineering at Cardiff University and a Research Fellow at the Institute for Resilient Infrastructure at University of Leeds. He holds both undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in Civil Engineering from the University of Leeds, and worked as a consultant Civil Engineer in UK. Dr Sarhosis is a Chartered Engineer (CEng) and a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy (FHEA) in UK. He is currently leading the Masonry Research Group at Newcastle University and chairing the National Scientific Committee on the Analysis and Restoration of Structures of Architectural Heritage (ISCARSAH) which is part of the ICOMOS.
- Ph.D Computational modelling of low bond strength masonry, University of Leeds (2012)
- MSc Sustainable Waste Management, University of Leeds (2006)
- MSc Infrastructure Asset Maintenance and Management, University of Leeds (2004)
- BEng Civil Engineering, University of Leeds (2003)
PREVIOUS RESEARCH POSITIONS
- Research Associate, Geo-environmental Research Center (GRC), School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK (2013-2015).
- Research Fellow, Institute for Resilient Infrastructure, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK (2012-2013).
- Grontmij Ltd, Structures and Building Department, Leeds, UK (2006 - 2008).
- MWH UK Ltd, Structures and Geotechnics Department, Bradford, UK (2004 - 2005).
PARTICIPATION IN FUNDING RESEARCH BODIES
- Reviewer of EPSRC grants.
- Associate Member of the EPSRC Peer Review College (since 06/2017).
- Chartered Engineer (CEng), Institution of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE), UK, No. 80317045.
- Associate Member, American Society of Civil Engineers, ASCE, No. 9924132.
- Fellow of the Higher Education Academy (FHEA). Recognition reference number: PR120205.
- Member of the Association of Civil Engineer, Technical Chamber of Greece (TEE), No. 114420.
- Member of Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE), UK, No. 60196357.
- Executive Committee Member of ICOMOS: International Council on Monuments and Sites.
- Chair of the National Scientific Committee on Structural Analysis and Restoration of Structures of Architectural Heritage (ISCARSAH) in UK.
- Committee Member of ICOMOS Digital Technology Heritage.
- Member of the International Masonry Society (IMS).
- Technical Committee Member of the RILEM group CSM - Composites for sustainable Strengthening of Masonry.
- Queen's Anniversary Prize for Higher and Further Education for work of outstanding excellence, as a member of the Geo-environmental Research Centre, Cardiff University, December 2013.
- First price award. Commercialisation of Research: Project sDNA, Research Innovation and Enterprise Award, Cardiff University, April 2014.
- International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation, ISSN online: 2056-9467, Interscience Publishers,.
EDITORIAL BOARD MEMBER
- Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure, Taylor and Francis Group. ISSN: 2378-9689 (Print), 2378-9697 (Online) http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tsri20
- Frontiers in Earthquake Engineering, Frontiers. Earthquake Engineering.
- Engineering Structures (Elsevier).
- Construction and Building Materials (Elsevier).
- Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering (Springer)
- Computers and Structures (Elsevier).
- Journal of Structures and Infrastructure Engineering (Taylor and Francis)
- International Journal of Architectural Heritage (Taylor and Francis).
- Journal of Sustainable Mining (Central Mining Institute, Poland).
- Oil & Gas Science and Technology (IFP Energies Nouvelles).
My principal research interests centred on the development of multi-phase (thermo/hydro/mechanical) numerical modelling of jointed and blocky material for applications in Structural and Geotechnical/Geo-environmental Engineering. I am keen on undertaking multi-disciplinary research and produce low cost sustainable engineering solutions that will address the low carbon agenda. In particular, my research falls with the following two main themes:
a) Improve the Resilience of Masonry Infrastructure:
If future cities are to be well-led and well-managed, they must have high-reliability and robust infrastructure, so that they can provide the best services, quality of life, economies and jobs. A wide range of masonry infrastructure (such as masonry arch bridges, tunnels, viaducts, historical structures as well as a range of more modern masonry buildings) are lacking resilience to unforeseen load effects (e.g. flooding, terrorist activity, collision), movement (e.g. caused by extreme climate events, settlement) etc. The risk of structural failure of such structures is high. Also, the cost, time and effort associated with repairing such damage is usually significant especially from the owner’s perspective. I am extremely interested in increasing the resilience of existing masonry structures by producing minimum cost, minimum intervention, minimum disruption and low embodied energy solutions that will extend their lives.
For further information, please visit the webpage of Masonry Research Group at Newcastle University.
b) Energy Geotechnics:
Geotechnical Engineering has a vital role to play in delivering our future energy needs. I am particularly interested in the development of innovative solutions to support the next generation of offshore energy capture technologies (wind, wave, tidal), unconventional gas activities (Underground Coal Gasification and Coal Bed Methane), geothermal energy and geological storage of carbon dioxide all of which are essential in order to secure environmental sustainability and a low carbon future.
FULLY FUNDED PHD SCHOLARSHIP OPPORTUNITY: An exciting opportunity exists for a strong candidate to obtain a fully funded scholarship to pursue a PhD. For further information, please contact me.
Postdoctoral Fellowship Opportunities: We support excellent early career researchers in applying for their own funding to join us. Some possible sources of funding are: EPSRC Fellowship, Royal Academy of Engineering Research Fellowship, Newton International Fellowship.
Academic Visitors: I welcome faculty and researchers from other research or industry institutions seeking mutually beneficial collaboration. I can host sabbaticals, visiting researchers and industry secondments. Please contact me to scope out interaction.
- British Academy, GCRF, Cities and Infrastructure Proframme. Reducing Disaster to Life and Livelihoods by Evaluating the Seismic Safety of Kathmandu's Historic Urban Infrastructure. (2017-2019) Value £300,000. Co
- EPSRC Global Challenge Research Fund: Disaster Risk Reduction of Heritage Structures in Nepal - Newcastle University. (2016-2017). Value £19,700, Co-I.
- EPSRC CASE Studentship AWARD (CASE/179/65/82) - Newcastle University, "Assessment of masonry arch bridges subjected to flooding" (2016 - 2019). Value £72,214, Co-I.
- Newcastle University - Modelling soil-structure interaction for masonry arch bridges. (2017) Value £7,000. 2017. PI
- British Council Newton-Al Farabi Partnership Programme. Travel Grant,"Water Management and Environmental Impact Assessment in the Oil and Gas Industry", Nazarbayev University, Astana, Kazakhstan. (2016), Value £1,100.
- International Centre for Mechanical Sciences (CISM). Travel Grant, “Mechanics of Masonry Structures”, Udine, Italy. (2011). Value £1,400, 2011. PI.
- Royal Academy of Engineering, International Travel Grant. (2008). Value £750. PI
VISITING PhD STUDENTS AND ACADEMIC SCHOLARS
- Prof Gabriele Milani - Professor of Structural Mechanics, Politechnico di Milano, Italy
- Dr Davorin Penava - Assistant Professor in Civil Engineering, University of Osijek, Osijek, Croatia.
- Mr Antonio Maria Darti - PhD student, University of Bolognia, Italy
- Mr Gabriel Lee Stockdale - PhD student, Politechnico di Milano, Italy
PhD STUDENT SUPERVISION
- Katherine Grattage - Vulnerability of masonry infrastructure to natural hazards (2018-2021).
- Dimitris Dais - Vulnerability assessment of historic masonry structures at risk due to man-made hazards (2017-2020).
- Vasilis Aggelidakis - Discrete element modelling of non-spherical particles: Application to geomaterials, process and mining engineering (2017-2020).
- Nickos Kassorakis - Monitoring and assessment of masonry arch bridges (2016-2019)
- Chuanlin Wang - Retrofitting of infilled RC frames using collar jointed masonry (completed 2016)
- Vincenzo Giamundo - Evaluation of Different Computational Modelling Strategies for the Analysis of Low Strength Masonry Structures (completed 2012).
EXTERNAL EXAMINATION OF PHDs
- Heriot-Watt University (1)
- Workshop on the Geospatial and Geotechnical Applications on Disaster Risk Reduction of Heritage Structures, Geomatics Engineering Society, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2016.
- Workshop on the Assessment of historic masonry structures in Nepal. Department of Archeology, Government of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2016.
- Workshop on the Numerical Modelling of Masonry Structures, 8th International Congress of Croatian Society of Mechanics, 2015.
SELECTED INVITED LECTURES, RESEARCH PRESENTATIONS AND SHORT COURSES
- Discrete element modelling of Multi-ring masonry arches, 13th Canadian Masonry Symposium, Halifax, Canada, 2017.
- The role of numerical modelling for the assessment of historic structures in Nepal, Department of Archeology, Government of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2016.
- Geospatial and Geotechnical Applications on Disaster Risk Reduction of Heritage Structures, NEPAL Geomatics Engineering Society, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2016.
- Underground Coal Gasification – Wales Perspective. Clean Coal Technology Forum, Workshop, Leeds University, 2015.
- Carbon sequestration in deep coal seams. Royal Geographic Society. Feb 2015, University of Cardiff, Wales, UK.
- Computational modelling of historic masonry structures. Workshop YRMMS 2013, University of Salerno, Italy, 2013.
- Development of geo-mechanical and cavity models for UCG spaces and CO2 storage. Workshop - Study of deep underground coal gasification and permanent storage of CO2 in the affected areas – results (UCG&CO2 STORAGE), Sofia, Bulgaria, 2012.
- A computational modelling approach for low bond strength masonry. Structural Analysis of Historic Constructions, Poland, 2012.
- Multi scale and multi-physics modelling – Engineering Applications. Centre for Energy Systems. National University of Science and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan, 2012.
- Computational modelling strategies for masonry. School of Civil Engineering. National University of Science and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan, 2012.
- Computational modelling of cavity growth – Applications and case studies. Department for Science and Technology, Planning Commission, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2012.
- 3D coupled thermal-mechanical numerical modelling of UCG cavity growth and surface subsidence. CERTH, Athens, Greece, 2012.
- Computational modelling of the cavity growth in UCG. UK-Pakistan Coal conference, Leeds, 2012.
- Computational modelling of clay brickwork walls containing openings. International Masonry Conference, Germany, 2010.
- Distinct element modelling of masonry wall panels with openings. 9th Int. Conference on Computational Structures Technology, Athens, 2009.
VISION FOR TEACHING
My vision for teaching is to promote life long learning environment, empower students' potential, expand their boundaries of knowledge and produce graduates with experience, skills and ability to innovate and tackle local and global challenges.
Basic geotechnics and geology for civil engineers.
Teaching contributions to:
- CEG2201 - Geotechnics
- CEG2001 - Design of Sustainable Engineering Systems 2
- CEG3001 - Design of Sustainable Engineering Systems 3
Ground improvements and geotechnics for geotechnical engineers and engineering geologists
Module leader for:
Teaching contributions to:
Module leader for MSc project and dissertation:
- CEG8296 Project and Dissertation in Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology (MSc)
- CEG8396 Project and Dissertation in Structural Engineering (MSc)
- Xiao J, Wang T, Han Y, Sarhosis V, Zeng J. Seismic responses of colonnade structure of Pompeii using the three-dimensional discrete element method of analysis. Engineering Journal of Wuhan University 2018, 03(1), 1-9. In Press.
- Anic F, Penava D, Sarhosis V. Development of a three-dimensional computational model for the in-plane and out-of-plane analysis of masonry-infilled reinforced concrete frames. In: 6th International Conference on Computational Methods in Structural Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering (COMPDYN 2017). 2017, Rhodes Island, Greece.
- Kassotakis N, Sarhosis V, Forgács T, Bagi K. Discrete element modelling of multi-ring brickwork masonry arches. In: 13th Canadian Masonry Symposium. 2017, Halifax, Canada: Canada Masonry Design Centre.
- Bui TT, Limam A, Sarhosis V, Hjiaj M. Discrete element modelling of the in-plane and out-of-plane behaviour of dry-joint masonry wall constructions. Engineering Structures 2017, 136, 277-294.
- Dhonju H, Xiao W, Shakya B, Mills J, Sarhosis V. Documentation of Heritage Structures Through Geo-Crowdsourcing and Web-Mapping. In: WebMGS 2017. 2017, 19-20 Sept. during ISPRS Geospatial Week, 18-22 September 2017, Wuhan, China.
- Dhonju HK, Xiao W, Sarhosis V, Mills JP, Wilkinson S, Wang Z, Thapa L, Panday US. Feasibility study of low-cost image-based heritage documentation in Nepal. In: 3D ARCH - 3D Virtual Reconstruction and Visualization of Complex Architectures: 7th International Workshop. 2017, Nafplio, Greece: ISPRS.
- Cavaleri L, Trapani FD, Asteris PG, Sarhosis V. Influence of column shear failure on pushover based assessment of masonry infilled reinforced concrete framed structures: A case study. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 2017, 100, 98-112.
- Forgács T, Sarhosis V, Bagi K. Minimum thickness of semi-circular skewed masonry arches. Engineering Structures 2017, 140(1), 317–336.
- Prizeman OEC, Sarhosis V, D'alri AM, Whitman CJ, Muratore G. Modelling from the past: the leaning southwest tower of Caerphilly castle 1539 – 2017. In: 26th International CIPA Symposium – Digital Workflows for Heritage Conservation. 2017, Ottawa, Canada: ICOMOS/ISPRS International Scientific Committee on Heritage Documentation (CIPA).
- Pulatsu B, Sarhosis V, Bretas E, Nikitas N, Lourenço PB. Non-linear static behaviour of ancient free-standing stone columns. Structures and Buildings 2017, (ePub ahead of Print), 1-13.
- Formisano A, Vituat R, Milani G, Sarhosis V. Parametric seismic analysis on masonry bell towers. In: ANIDIS 2017 - XVII Conference. 2017, Pistoia.
- Sarhosis V, Fabbrocino F, Formisano A, Milani G. Seismic vulnerability of different in geometry historic masonry towers. In: 6th International Conference on Computational Methods in Structural Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering (COMPDYN 2017). 2017, Rhodes Island, Greece.
- Asteris PG, Cavaleri L, Di Trapani F, Sarhosis V. A macro-modelling approach for the analysis of infilled frame structures considering the effects of openings and vertical loads. Structure and Infrastructure Engineering 2016, 12(5), 551-566.
- Sarhosis V, De Santis S, de Felice G. A review of experimental investigations and assessment methods for masonry arch bridges. Structure and Infrastructure Engineering 2016.
- Sarhosis V. Advances in Masonry Materials and Structures: Experimental & Numerical Modelling Aspects. Open Construction and Building Technology Journal 2016, 10(Suppl. 2), 189-191.
- Sarhosis V. An optimization procedure for material parameter identification in masonry constitutive models. International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation 2016, 1(1), 48-58.
- Sarhosis V, Hosking L, Thomas H. Carbon sequestration potential of the South Wales Coalfield. Environmental Geotechnics 2016, 4, epub ahead of print.
- Sarhosis V, Bagi K, Lemos JV, Milani G, ed. Computational modeling of masonry structures using the discrete element method. USA: IGI Global, 2016.
- Mohebkhah A, Sarhosis V. Discrete Element Modeling of Masonry-Infilled Frames. In: Sarhosis, V; Bagi, K; Lemos, JV; Milani, G, ed. Computational Modelling of Masonry Structures Using the Discrete Element Method. USA: IGI Global, 2016, pp.200-234.
- Sarhosis V, Jaya AA, Thomas HR. Economic modelling for coal bed methane production and electricity generation from deep virgin coal seams. Energy 2016, 107, 580–594.
- Wang C, Forth JP, Nikitas N, Sarhosis V. Experimental and numerical investigation on collar-jointed masonry walls. In: Brick and Block Masonry: Proceedings of the 16th International Brick and Block Masonry Conference. 2016, Padova, Italy: CRC Press.
- Wang C, Forth JP, Nikitas N, Sarhosis V. Experimental and numerical investigation on collar-jointed masonry walls. In: 16TH INTERNATIONAL BRICK AND BLOCK MASONRY CONFERENCE "MASONRY IN A WORLD OF CHALLENGES". 2016. In Preparation.
- Sarhosis V. Micro-modelling options for masonry structures. In: Sarhosis V., Lemos J.V., Bagi K., Milani G, ed. Computational Modelling of Masonry Structures Using the Discrete Element Method. IGI Global, 2016. In Preparation.
- Sarhosis V, Oliveira DV, Lourenco PB. On the mechanical behaviour of masonry structures. In: Sarhosis V., Bagi K., Lemos J.V., Milani G, ed. Computational Modelling of Masonry Structures Using the Discrete Element Method. USA: IGI GLOBAL, 2016. In Press.
- Sarhosis V, Asteris P, Wang T, Hu W, Han Y. On the stability of colonnade structural systems under static and dynamic loading conditions. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering 2016, 14(4), 1131-1152.
- Wang C, Forth JP, Nikitas N, Sarhosis V. Retrofitting of masonry walls by using a mortar joint technique; experiments and numerical validation. Engineering Structures 2016, 117, 58-70.
- Sarhosis V, Bagi K, Bicanic N. Special Issue on Numerical Modelling of Masonry Structures. International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation 2016, 1(4), 278-281.
- Sarhosis V, Asteris PG, Mohebkhah A, Xiao J, Wang T. Three dimensional modelling of ancient colonnade structural systems subjected to harmonic and seismic loading. Structural Engineering and Mechanics 2016, 60(4), 633-653.
- Sarhosis V, Lavis S, Mostade M, Thomas HR. Towards commercialising underground coal gasification in the EU. Environmental Geotechnics 2016, (epub ahead of print).
- Hosking L, Thomas H, Sarhosis V, Neil P, Koj A. Assessment of reservoir conditions and engineering factors influencing coal bed methane recovery in the South Wales Coalfield. In: 15th Pan-American Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. 2015, Buenos Aires, Argentina: IOS Press.
- Mocek P, Sarhosis V, Murugesan K, Thomas HR, Stanczyk K. Effect of gasification parameters on product gas characteristics of South Wales coal. In: Clean Coal Technology Conference (CCT2015). 2015, Kraków, Poland: IEA Clean Coal Center.
- Sarhosis V, Garrity S, Sheng Y. Influence of brick–mortar interface on the mechanical behaviour of low bond strength masonry brickwork lintels. Engineering Structures 2015, 88, 1-11.
- Sheng S, Benderev A, Bukolska D, Eshiet K, Gama C, Gorka T, Green M, Hristov N, Katsimpardi I, Kempka T, Kortenski J, Koukouzas N, Nakaten N, Sarhosis V, Schlueter R, Torres V, Veríssimo AC, Vesselinov V, Yang D. Interdisciplinary studies on the technical and economic feasibility of deep underground coal gasification with CO2 storage in bulgaria. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 2015, 1-33.
- Kapusta K, Sarhosis V, Stanczyk K, Thomas HR. Investigations of the temperature distributions in lignite and hard coal seams during underground coal gasification (UCG) process. In: Clean Coal Technology Conference (CCT2015). 2015, Kraków, Poland: IEA Clean Coal Centre.
- Asteris PG, Sarhosis V, Mohebkhah A, Plevris V, Papaloizou L, Komodromos P, Lemos JV. Numerical Modeling of Historic Masonry Structures. In: Panagiotis G. Asteris, Vagelis Plevris, ed. Handbook of Research on Seismic Assessment and Rehabilitation of Historic Structures. IGI Global, 2015, pp.213-256.
- Asteris PG, Repapis C, Cavaleri L, Sarhosis V, Athanasopoulou A. On the fundamental period of infilled RC frame buildings. Structural Engineering and Mechanics 2015, 54(6), 1175-1200.
- Sarhosis V, Lignola GP, Asteris GP. Seismic Vulnerability of Ancient Colonnade: Two Story Colonnade of the Forum in Pompeii. In: Panagiotis G. Asteris, Vagelis Plevris, ed. Handbook of Research on Seismic Assessment and Rehabilitation of Historic Structures. Hershey, Pennsylvania: IGI Global, 2015, pp.331-358.
- Sarhosis V, Jaya AA, Hosking LJ, Koj A, Thomas HR. Techno-economics for coal bed methane production in the South Wales Coalfield. In: Clean Coal Technology Conference (CCT2015). 2015, Kraków, Poland: IEA Clean Coal Center.
- Sarhosis V, Koj A, Nowak D, Kapusta K, Stanczyk K, Thomas HR. Underground coalgasification: Moving towards commercialisation. In: XV Panamerican Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. 2015.
- Sarhosis V, Tsavdaridis KD, Giannopoulos I. Discrete element modelling (DEM) for masonry infilled steel frames with multiple window openings subjected to lateral load variations. Open Construction and Building Technology Journal 2014, 8(1), 93-103.
- Giamundo V, Sarhosis V, Ligniola GP, Cosensza E. Discrete element modelling of the archaeological colonnade in Pompeii. In: 9th International Masonry Conference. 2014, Guimarães, Portugal: International Masonry Society.
- Giamundo V, Sarhosis V, Lignola GP, Sheng Y, Manfredi G. Evaluation of different computational modelling strategies for the analysis of low strength masonry structures. Engineering Structures 2014, 73, 160-169.
- Sarhosis V, Sheng Y. Identification of material parameters for low bond strength masonry. Engineering Structures 2014, 60, 100-110.
- Giamundo V, Sarhosis V, Ligniola GP, Sheng Y, Garrity SW, Manfredi G. Low unit strength masonry: computational modelling approaches. In: 9th International Masonry Conference. 2014, Guimarães, Portugal.
- Sarhosis V, Oliveira DV, Lemos JV, Lourenço PB. The effect of skew angle on the mechanical behaviour of masonry arches. Mechanics Research Communications 2014, 61, 53-59.
- Yang D, Sarhosis V, Sheng Y. Thermal–mechanical modelling around the cavities of underground coal gasification. Journal of the Energy Institute 2014, 87(4), 321-329.
- Sarhosis V, Garrity SW, Sheng Y. Computational modelling of low bond strength brickwork wall/beam panels with retro-fitted reinforcement. In: 12th Canadian Masonry Symposium. 2013, Vancouver, Canada: International Masonry Society.
- Yang D, Sarhosis V, Sheng Y. Computational modelling of the cavity growth in UCG. In: UK-Pakistan Coal Conference. 2013, Leeds, UK.
- Sarhosis V, Yang D, Sheng Y, Kempka T. Coupled hydro-thermal analysis of underground coal gasification reactor cool down for subsequent CO2 storage. Energy Procedia 2013, 40, 428–436.
- Sarhosis V, Yang D, Kempka T, Sheng Y. Geomechanical analysis of underground coal gasification reactor cool down for subsequent CO2 storage. EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts 2013.
- Sarhosis V, Oliveira DV, Lemos JV, Sheng Y, Lourenco PB. The behaviour of single span stone masonry skew arches. In: 7th International Conference on Arch Bridges, ARCH13. 2013, Split, Croatia: University of Zagreb.
- Sarhosis V, Garrity SW, Sheng Y. A computational modelling approach for low bond strength masonry. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Structural Analysis of Historical constructions, SAHC 2012. 2012, Wroclaw, Poland: DWE.
- Sarhosis V. Computational modelling of low bond strength masonry. Leeds, UK: University of Leeds, 2012.
- Sarhosis V, Sheng Y, Garrity SW. Computational modelling of clay brickwork walls containing openings. In: 8th International Masonry Conference (8IMC). 2010, Dresden, Germany: International Masonry Society.
- Sarhosis V, Garrity SW, Sheng Y. Distinct element modelling of masonry wall panels with openings. In: 9th International Conference on Computational Structures Technology. 2008, Athens: Civil-Comp Proceedings.