Dr Tracy Finch
Senior Lecturer in Psychology of Health Care
- Email: email@example.com
- Telephone: +44 (0) 191 208 7257
- Address: Dr Tracy Finch
Institute of Health & Society
Newcastle Upon Tyne
I am a research psychologist, drawing on both psychological and sociological approaches to understanding health care practices and organisation. I lead a programme of research on understanding the social and organisational aspects that affect the normalisation of complex interventions in health care, and am co-developer of Normalization Process Theory. As a member of the Decision Making and Organisation of Care (DMOC) Research Theme, my work involves bringing social science perspectives and qualitative methodological expertise to clinical research and teaching. Much of my work aims to advance understanding and improvement in the implementation of complex health interventions, through theory, measurement (NoMAD study) and tool development.
Roles and responsibilities:
· Degree Program Director, MSc in Public Health and Health Services Research/ Master of Public Health
· IHS Teaching and Learning Committee
· Faculty of Medical Sciences Ethics Committee
· Newcastle Health Psychology Group
1999 PhD (Psychology). Deakin University (Geelong, Australia). Thesis title: ‘Risk perception, risk communication and message framing: Breast cancer and family history’.
1995 B.A. Honours (Psychology). Deakin University (Geelong, Australia). Thesis titled ‘Optimistic Bias in Beliefs about Smoking’.
1994 B.A. (Social Science), Deakin University.
My research interests include understanding the social and psychological aspects of the design, organisation, implementation, use, evaluation and normalisation of new technologies of health care. This includes emphasis on understanding how to best assess multiple user perspectives about the impact of new technologies on the conduct and experience of the different kinds of work that new technologies entail. Instrumental to this, is my ongoing work on developing and testing Normalization Process Theory (NPT), including the ESRC funded NoMAD study to develop process and outcome measures for assessing implementation processes concerning new healthcare interventions. In the EU funded ImpleMentAll study, I am leading a work package to develop tailored implementation interventions which will be evaluated in e-mental health services across Europe and Australia.
My research profile consists of a range of studies that address these issues in relation to both technology-related (eg. telemedicine, telehealth, telecare and e-health) and non-technology related interventions (eg. CBT for Fear of Falling).
Current doctoral supervision:
- Michael Sykes, IHS, Newcastle University (NIHR Doctoral Fellow)
- Ashleigh Stamp, Dental Sciences, Newcastle University,
- Melissa Girling, IHS, Newcastle University (NIHR Doctoral Fellow)
- Gillian Waller, Teesside University (Fuse funded Studentship)
- Jan Lecouturier, IHS, Newcastle University
- Samridh Sharma, Dental Sciences, Newcastle University
- Katherine Jackson, IHS, Newcastle University
Previous doctoral supervision:
- Sara McCafferty, IHS, Newcastle University
- Teresa Kelly, ICM/IHS, Newcastle University
- Iain McKinnon, ION, Newcastle University
- Lorraine Cowley, PEALS, Newcastle University
- John Steer, ICM, Newcastle University
- Ben Heaven IHS, Newcastle University
Current Research Funding
NIHR Doctoral Fellowship. Enhancing audit and feedback in Acute Trust dementia care. Awarded to Mr Michael Sykes (co-supervising, with Prof Richard Thomson, Dr Niina Kohlemainen & Dr Louise Allan), Newcastle University.
European Union H2020-SC1-2016-2017. Towards evidence-based tailored implementation strategies for eHealth. Lead partner: University of Southern Denmark. 53 months, start 01/01/17.
NIHR Doctoral Fellowship. Young people who offend: Understanding and meeting health and wellbeing needs using experience based co-design. Awarded to Ms Melissa Girling (primary supervisor, with Prof Ann LeCouter & Prof Dorothy Newbury-Birch), Newcastle University. Nov 2016 – Sep 2019.
Northern Counties Kidney Research.Electronic alerts for acute kidney injury: a multi-centre pilot evaluation of end-user experience framed within Normalisation Process Theory. Kanagasundaram, S (PI), Sheerin N, Sims A, Price A, Yates B, Kilimangalam N, Bevan M, Finch T, Maniatopoulos G. 01/05/16 for 12 months.
Autistica.Adult Autism Spectrum Cohort UK (AASC-UK). Jeremy Parr is PI, Tracy Finch leads qual work: Parr, J., Burn, D., Chinnery, P., Le Couteur, A., McConachie, H., Finch, T. (see: http://research.ncl.ac.uk/adultautismspectrum/ )
NIHR HTA.RATULS: Robot Assisted Training for the Upper Limb after Stroke. Rodgers H, Aird L, Darawil K, Dawson J, Eyre J, Finch T, Ford G, Hogg S, Howel D, Hughes N, Krebs H, Price C, Rochester L, Shaw L, Turner D, Ternent L, Vale L, Warburton E, Wilkes S.
NIHR Programme Grants for Applied Research. Improving the diagnosis and management of neurodegenerative dementia of Lewy body type in the NHS (DIAMOND-Lewy). John O'Brien, David Burn, Alan Thomas, Claire Bamford, Ian McKeith, John-Paul Taylor, Louise Allan, Peter James, Mark Deverill, Tracy Finch (Qualitative lead), James Mason, Tim Docking, Derek Forster. 1/10/13 for 60 months.
ESRC Standard Grant. Improving the normalisation of complex interventions: Developing quantitative measures for users based on Normalisation Process Theory. Tracy Finch (PI), Carl May, Tim Rapley, Frances Mair, Elizabeth Murray, Shaun Treweek, Ian Nicholas Steen, Elaine McColl. 2012-15.
Technology Strategy Board (TSB) & ESRC.Designing Scalable Assistive Technologies and Services for Independent Healthy Living and Sustainable Market Development in the Mixed Digital Economy. With Feng Li (PI). 2011- 14.
NIHR Health Technology Assessment.Cognitive behavioural therapy-based intervention to reduce fear of falling in older fallers attending a community falls service: Therapy development and randomised controlled trial. Lead for ethnographic sub-study. Steve Parry (PI). 2012-15.
NIHR Doctoral Fellowship: Optimising baby to breast attachment (OBBA): a mixed methods study. Fellow: Dr Ms Teresa Kelly. Commenced 2011.
NIHR Doctoral Fellowship:Health Morbidity and Screening in Custody. Fellow: Dr Iain McKinnon. Commenced 2011.
NIHR Doctoral Fellowship: Women, Stress and Alcohol. Fellow: Mrs Katherine Jackson. Commenced 2010.
Cancer UK PhD Training Fellowship: Living with Hereditary non Polyposis Colon Cancer (HNPCC): A ten-year retrospective examination of the experiences of a large North of England Family. Fellow: Mrs Lorraine Cowley (co-supervisor).
- I am Degree Program Director for the MSc in Public Health and Health Services Research/ Master of Public Health
- Session contributor to MSc modules
- MSc dissertation project supervision
- Healthcare Organisation and Practice for Bioscience (School of Biomedical Sciences)
- McGee-Lennon M, Bouamrane MM, Grieve E, O'Donnell CA, O'Connor S, Agbakoba R, Devlin AM, Barry S, Bikker A, Finch T, Mair FS. A Flexible Toolkit for Evaluating Person-Centred Digital Health and Wellness at Scale. In: Advances in Human Factors and Ergonomics in Healthcare: Proceedings of the AHFE 2016 International Conference on Human Factors and Ergonomics in Healthcare. 2017, Walt Disney World, Florida, USA: Springer International Publishing.
- Lennon MR, Bouamrane M-M, Devlin AM, O'Connor S, O'Donnell C, Chetty U, Agbakoba R, Bikker A, Grieve E, Finch T, Watson N, Wyke S, Mair FS. Readiness for delivering digital health at scale: Lessons from a longitudinal qualitative evaluation of a national digital health innovation program in the United Kingdom. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2017, 19(2), e42.
- Rodgers H, Shaw L, Bosomworth H, Aird L, Alvarado N, Andole S, Cohen DL, Dawson J, Eyre J, Finch T, Ford GA, Hislop J, Hogg S, Howel D, Hughes N, Krebs HI, Price C, Rochester L, Stamp E, Ternent L, Turner D, Vale L, Warburton E, van Wijck F, Wilkes S. Robot Assisted Training for the Upper Limb after Stroke (RATULS): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials 2017, 18(1), 340.
- Finch T, Girling M, May C, Mair F, Murray E, Treweek S, Steen I, McColl E, Dickinson C, Rapley T. Can we measure implementation progress using normalization process theory? Development and validation of the NoMAD survey tool. In: 48th Congress of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP). 2016, Dublin, Ireland: Springer.
- Parry SW, Bamford C, Deary V, Finch TL, Gray J, MacDonald C, McMeekin P, Sabin NJ, Steen IN, Whitney SL, McColl EM. Cognitive behavioural therapy-based intervention to reduce fear of falling in older people: therapy development and randomised controlled trial the Strategies for Increasing Independence, Confidence and Energy (STRIDE) study. Health Technology Assessment 2016, 20(56), 1-+.
- Devlin AM, McGee-Lennon M, O'Donnell CA, Bouamrane MM, Agbakoba R, O'Connor S, Grieve E, Finch T, Wyke S, Watson N, Browne S, Mair FS, Dallas Evaluation Team. Delivering digital health and well-being at scale: lessons learned during the implementation of the dallas program in the United Kingdom. American Medical Informatics Association. Journal 2016, 23(1), 48-59.
- May CR, Johnson M, Finch T. Implementation, context and complexity. Implementation Science 2016, 11, 141.
- Hall A, Finch T, Kolehmainen N, James D. Implementing a video-based intervention to empower staff members in an autism care organization: a qualitative study. BMC Health Services Research 2016, 16, 608.
- Wouters EJM, Weijers TCM, Finch TL. Successful implementation of technological innovations in health care organizations. In: Handbook of Smart Homes, Health Care and Well-Being. Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp.179-189.
- Gibson G, Newton L, Pritchard G, Finch T, Brittain K, Robinson L. The provision of assistive technology products and services for people with dementia in the United Kingdom. Dementia 2016, 15(4), 681-701.
- Bosomworth H, Aird L, Andole S, Cohen D, Dawson J, Eyre J, Finch T, Ford G, Hogg S, Howel D, Hughes N, Krebs H, Price C, Rochester L, Shaw L, Ternent L, Turner D, Vale L, vanWijck F, Wilkes S, Rodgers H. Robot Assisted Training for the Upper Limb after Stroke (RATULS). In: European Stroke Organisation Annual Conference 2015. 2015, Glasgow, UK: International Journal of Stroke.
- Bosomworth H, Aird L, Andole S, Dawson J, Eyre J, Finch T, Ford G, Hogg S, Howel D, Hughes N, Krebs H, Price C, Rochester L, Shaw L, Ternent L, Turner D, Vale L, vanWijck F, Warbuton E, Wilkes S, Rodgers H. Robot Assisted Training for the Upper Limb after Stroke (RATULS). In: Technically Assisted Rehabilitation. 2015, Berlin, Germany.
- Finch TL, Bamford C, Deary V, Sabin N, Parry SW. Making sense of a cognitive behavioural therapy intervention for fear of falling: qualitative study of intervention development. BMC Health Services Research 2014, 14, 436.
- Gibson G, Newton L, Pritchard G, Finch T, Brittain K, Robinson AL. The provision of assistive technology services for people with dementia in the United Kingdom. Dementia 2014, 1-21.
- Parry SW, Deary V, Finch T, Bamford C, Sabin N, McMeekin P, O'Brien J, Caldwell A, Steen N, Whitney SL, Macdonald C, McColl E. The STRIDE (Strategies to Increase confidence, InDependence and Energy) study: cognitive behavioural therapy-based intervention to reduce fear of falling in older fallers living in the community - study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials 2014, 15, 210.
- Newton L, Gibson G, Pritchard G, Finch T, Brittain K, Kingston A, Robinson L. Assistive technologies in caring for the oldest old. In: 7th NIHR Trainee Conference 2013. 2013, Leeds: National Institute for Health Research.
- Robinson L, Gibson G, Kingston A, Newton L, Pritchard G, Finch T, Brittain K. Assistive technologies in caring for the oldest old: a review of current practice and future directions. Aging Health 2013, 9(4), 365-375.
- Parry SW, Finch T, Deary V. How should we manage fear of falling in older adults living in the community?. BMJ 2013, 346, f2933.
- Finch TL, Rapley T, Girling M, Mair FS, Murray E, Treweek S, McColl E, Steen IN, May CR. Improving the Normalization of Complex Interventions: Measure Development based on Normalization Process Theory (NoMAD): Study Protocol. Implementation Science 2013, 8(43), 1-8.
- Brown MC, Bell R, Collins C, Waring G, Robson SC, Waugh J, Finch T. Women's perception of future risk following pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia. Hypertension in Pregnancy 2013, 32(1), 60-73.
- Mair F, May C, O'Donnell C, Finch T, Sullivan F, Murray E. Factors that promote or inhibit the implementation of e-health systems: An explanatory systematic review. Bulletin World Health Organisation 2012, 90(5), 357-364.
- Finch TL, Mair FS, O'Donnell C, Murray E, May CR. From theory to 'measurement' in complex interventions: Methodological lessons from the development of an e-health normalisation instrument. BMC Medical Research Methods 2012, 12(1), 69.
- Rogers A, Kirk S, Gately C, May CR, Finch T. Established users and the making of telecare work in long term condition management: Implications for health policy. Social Science & Medicine 2011, 72(7), 1077-1084.
- May CR, Finch T, Ballini L, MacFarlane A, Mair F, Murray E, Treweek S, Rapley T. Evaluating complex interventions and health technologies using normalization process theory: development of a simplified approach and web-enabled toolkit. BMC Health Services Research 2011, 11(1), 245.
- May CR, Finch TL, Cornford J, Exley C, Gately C, Kirk S, Jenkings KN, Osbourne J, Robinson AL, Rogers A, Wilson R, Mair FS. Integrating telecare for chronic disease management in the community: What needs to be done?. BMC Health Services Research 2011, 11(1), 131.
- Murray E, Burns J, May C, Finch T, O'Donnell C, Wallace P, Mair F. Why is it difficult to implement e-health initiatives? A qualitative study. Implementation Science 2011, 6(1), 6.
- Murray E, Treweek S, Pope C, MacFarlance A, Ballini L, Dowrick D, Finch T, Kennedy A, Mair F, O'Donnel C, Ong BN, Rapley T, Rogers A, May C. Normalisation process theory: a framework for developing, evaluating and implementing complex interventions. BMC Medicine 2010, 8(1), 63.
- May CR, Mair F, Finch T, MacFarlane A, Dowrick C, Treweek S, Rapley T, Ballini L, Ong BN, Rogers A, Murray E, Elwyn G, Legare F, Gunn J, Montori VM. Development of a theory of implementation and integration: Normalization Process Theory. Implementation Science 2009, 4(1), 29.
- Field JC, Rousseau N, Thomason JM, Exley C, Finch T, Steele JG, Ellis JS. Facilitation of implant provision in primary care. British Dental Journal 2009, 207(10), E20.
- May C, Finch T. Implementing, Embedding, and Integrating Practices: An Outline of Normalization Process Theory. Sociology 2009, 43(3), 535-554.
- Mort M, Finch T, May C. Making and unmaking telepatients: Identity and governance in new health technologies. Science, Technology and Human Values 2009, 34(1), 9-33.
- Exley C, Rousseau NS, Steele J, Finch T, Field J, Donaldson C, Thomason JM, May CR, Ellis JS. Paying for treatments? Influences on negotiating clinical need and decision-making for dental implant treatment. BMC Health Services Research 2009, 9(7).
- Heaven B, Exley C, Finch T, May C. The participation of practice nurses in a randomised controlled trial: Managing intersecting trajectories of work. In: British Sociological Association: Medical Sociology Conference. 2009, University of Manchester, UK.
- Finch TL, Mort M, Mair FS, May CR. Future patients? Telehealthcare, roles and responsibilities. Health and Social Care in the Community 2008, 16(1), 86-95.
- Heaven B, Exley C, Finch T, May C. Instability, conflict and regaining epistemological control: An ethnographic account of a trial-team at work. In: British Sociological Association: Medical Sociology Conference. 2008, University of Sussex, Brighton.
- Finch T. Teledermatology for chronic disease management: Coherence and normalization. Chronic Illness 2008, 4(2), 127-134.
- Severn P, Fraser S, Finch T, May C. Which quality of life score is best for glaucoma patients and why?. BMC Ophthalmology 2008, 8(2), 4.
- Robinson L, Hutchings D, Corner L, Finch T, Hughes J, Brittain K, Bond J. Balancing rights and risks: Conflicting perspectives in the management of wandering in dementia. Health, Risk and Society 2007, 9(4), 389-406.
- Robinson L, Hutchings D, Dickinson HO, Corner L, Beyer F, Finch T, Hughes J, Vanoli A, Ballard C, Bond J. Effectiveness and acceptability of non-pharmacological interventions to reduce wandering in dementia: A systematic review. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 2007, 22(1), 9-22.
- May C, Mair F, Dowrick C, Finch T. Process evaluation for complex interventions in primary care: Understanding trials using the normalization process model. BMC Family Practice 2007, 8(42).
- Finch TL, Mair FS, May CR. Teledermatology in the U.K.: Lessons in service innovation. British Journal of Dermatology 2007, 156(3), 521-527.
- Mair FS, May C, Finch T, Murray E, Anderson G, Sullivan F, O'Donnell C, Wallace P, Epstein O. Understanding the implementation and integration of e-health services. In: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare. 2007, Royal Society of Medicine Press.
- May C, Finch T, Mair F, Ballini L, Dowrick C, Eccles M, Gask L, MacFarlane A, Murray E, Rapley T, Rogers A, Treweek S, Wallace P, Anderson G, Burns J, Heaven B. Understanding the implementation of complex interventions in health care: The normalization process model. BMC Health Services Research 2007, 7(148), 7.
- Wride N, Finch T, Rapley T, Moreira T, May C, Fraser S. What's in a name? Medication terms: What they mean and when to use them. British Journal of Ophthalmology 2007, 91(11), 1422-1424.
- Robinson L, Hutchings D, Corner L, Beyer F, Dickinson H, Vanoli A, Finch T, Hughes J, Ballard C, May C, Bond J. A systematic literature review of the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions to prevent wandering in dementia and evaluation of the ethical implications and acceptability of their use. Health Technology Assessment 2006, 10(26), 1-124.
- Heaven B, Exley C, Finch T, May C. Bridging the ontological divide: Different social worlds in the conduct of a randomised controlled trial. In: British Sociological Association: Medical Sociology Conference. 2006, Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh, UK.
- May C, Rapley T, Moreira T, Finch T, Heaven B. Technogovernance: Evidence, subjectivity, and the clinical encounter in primary care medicine. Social Science and Medicine 2006, 62(4), 1022-1030.
- Finch T, May C, Mort M, Mair F. Telemedicine, telecare, and the future patient: innovation, risk and governance. In: Webster, A., Wyatt, S, ed. New Technologies in Health Care: Challenge, Change and Innovation. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave, 2006, pp.84-96.
- Robinson L, Hutchings D, Dickinson H, Corner L, Beyer F, Vanoli A, Finch T, Hughes J, Ballard C, May C, Bond J. Effectiveness and acceptability of non-pharmacological methods to reduce wandering in people with dementia: incorporating users' perspectives into systematic reviews. International Psychogeriatrics 2005, 17, 199-200.
- May C, Finch T, Mair F, Mort M. Towards a wireless patient: Chronic illness, scarce care and technological innovation in the United Kingdom. In: Workshop on Building Trust and Value in Health systems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. 2005, Johannesburg, South Africa: Social Science and Medicine, Pergamon.
- May C, Finch T, Mort M, Mair F. 'Being more modern': shifting notions of innovation in telehealthcare. In: BSA Medical Sociology Group 36th Annual Conference. 2004, University of York, York, UK.
- May C, Finch T, Mort M, Mair F. 'Being more modern': shifting notions of innovation in telehealthcare. In: Healthy Innovation: an international workshop, the ESRC Centre for Research on Innovation and Competition. 2004, Harold Hankins Building, University of Manchester, UK.
- Mair F, Hibbert D, May C, Angus R, Finch T, Boland A, O'Connor J, Haycox A, Roberts C, Capewell S. Problems with Implementation: The Story of a Home Telecare Trial. In: Whitten, P., Cook, D, ed. Understanding Health Communications Technologie. San Francisco, California, USA: Jossey-Bass, 2004, pp.3-10.
- May C, Rapley T, Moreira T, Finch T, Heaven B. Reshaping the clinical encounter in the late modernity: technologies and subjectivity in primary care. In: In sickness and in health - shaping health care: power and knowledge. 2004, University of Iceland, Reykjavik.
- Finch T, Mort M, May C, Mair F. Telehealthcare: perspectives on the changing role of patients and citizens. In: TeleMed & eHealth: Citizen Centred Care. 2004, Royal Society of Medicine, London, UK.
- Mort M, May C, Finch T, Mair F. Telemedicine and clinical governance: controlling technology; containing knowledge. From convergence to confidence: science, technology and politics in medicine. In: Harrison, S., Gray, A, ed. Governing Medicine: Theory and Practice. London, UK: Open University Press, 2004.
- May C, Mort M, Finch T, Mair F. The anatomy of failure? Teledermatology in an English city. In: Whitten, P., Cook, D, ed. Understanding Health Communication Technologies. San Francisco, California, USA: Jossey-Bass, 2004, pp.80-88.
- May C, Mort M, Williams T, Mair F, Gask L. Health technology assessment in its local contexts: Studies of telehealthcare. Social Science and Medicine 2003, 57(4), 697-710.
- May C, Moreira T, Rapley T, Finch T, Heaven B. Hybrid Medicine: Technogovernance, subjectivity and primary care. In: Devices and Designs: Medical Innovation in Historical Perspective. 2003, University of Manchester, UK.
- C. May,B. Heaven,T. Moreira,T. Rapley,T. Williams. Hybrid medicine: technologies and subjects in primary care. Paper presented at CSSHM Summer Conference, Manchester, July 2003, "Innovating Medicine: Medical Technologies in Historical Perspective". 2003. .
- Rapley T, Finch T, May C, Moreira T, Heaven B. Hybrid medicines: technologies and subjects in primary care. In: BSA Medical Sociology Group: 35th Annual Conference Programme. 2003, Copenhagen, Denmark.
- Rapley T, Finch T, May C, Moreira T, Heaven B. Hybrid Medicines: Technologies And Subjects In Primary Care. In: British Sociological Association - Medical Sociology Conference. 2003, University of York, York, UK.
- Finch TL, May CR, Mair FS, Mort M, Gask L. Integrating service development with evaluation in telehealthcare: An ethnographic study. British Medical Journal 2003, 327(7425), 1205-1208.
- Mort M, May CR, Williams T. Remote doctors and absent patients: Acting at a distance in telemedicine?. Science Technology and Human Values 2003, 28(2), 274-295.
- May C, Harrison R, Finch T, MacFarlane A, Mair F, Wallace P. Understanding the Normalization of Telemedicine Services through Qualitative Evaluation. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 2003, 10(6), 596-604.
- May CR, Harrison R, MacFarlane A, Williams TL, Mair FS, Wallace P. Why do telemedicine systems fail to normalize as stable models of service delivery?. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare 2003, 9(1), 25-26.
- May CR, Williams TL, Mair FS, Mort MM, Shaw NT, Gask L. Factors influencing the evaluation of telehealth interventions: preliminary results from a qualitative study of evaluation projects in the UK. In: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare: TeleMed 2002 Conference. 2002, London: Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd.
- May C, Mort M, Mair FS, Williams T. Factors affecting the adoption of telehealthcare technologies in the United Kingdom: the policy context and the problem of evidence. Health Informatics Journal 2001, 7(3-4), 131-134.
- Williams TL, May CR, Esmail A. Limitations of patient satisfaction studies in telehealthcare: A systematic review of the literature. Telemedicine and e-Health 2001, 7(4), 293-316.
- Williams TL, May CR, Esmail A, Griffiths CEM, Shaw NT, Fitzgerald D, Stewart E, Mould M, Morgan M, Pickup L, Kelly S. Patient satisfaction with teledermatology is related to perceived quality of life. British Journal of Dermatology 2001, 145(6), 911-917.
- M. Mort,C. May,T.L. Williams,F. Mair. Telemedicine and Clinical Governance: controlling technology; containing knowledge (paper given at an ESRC seminar on Clinical Governance, Leeds, July). 2001. .
- C. May,M. Mort,T.L. Williams,F.S. Mair,N.T. Shaw. Understanding the evaluation of telemedicine: the play of the social and the technical, and the shifting sands of reliable knowledge (Proceedings: European Symposium on Information and Communication Technologies in Medicine. Rotterdam). 2001. .
- Williams T & Clarke VA. Optimistic bias in beliefs about smoking. Australian Journal of Psychology 1997, 49(2), 106-112.
- Clarke VA, Williams T, & Arthey S. Skin type and optimistic bias in relation to the sun protection and sun tanning behaviours of young adults. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1997, 20(2), 207-222.