Professor Paul Flecknell
- Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Telephone: +44 (0) 191 208 6715
- Fax: +44 (0) 191 208 8688
- Address: Comparative Biology Centre
The Medical School
University of Newcastle
Newcastle upon Tyne
I started my career as a clinical veterinarian and became involved in medical research at the Clinical Research Centre, London, while acting as their laboratory animal veterinarian. After completing a PhD in physiology, I moved to Newcastle, where I was able to develop my major interests in the science underpinning animal welfare.
Roles and Responsibilities
I am responsible for the overall management of the university research animal facilities. I am also the university "Named Veterinary Surgeon". I head a research group whose main objectives are strongly linked to improving the welfare of laboratory animals.
MA, VetMB, PhD, DECLAM, DLAS, DECVA, (Hon) DACLAM, (Hon) FRCVS
MRC Non-clinical scientific staff
IASP, AVA, ESLAV, LAVA, LASA, AALAS
Honours and Awards
1981 Winston Churchill Travelling Fellowship, 1986 Livesey Medal by the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons for work on anaesthesia and analgesia of laboratory animals. 1991, GV-SOLAS Prize for Laboratory Animal Science.1991 Hildegard Doerenkamp and Gerhard Zbinden Foundation for Realistic Animal Protection in Scientific Research - Scientific award for 1990, 1992 Canadian Commonwealth Fellowship. 1993 Research Defence Society - SmithKline Beecham Laboratory Animal Welfare Prize. 1996 WARDS Refinement Project Award, 1997 Honorary Associate, British Laboratory Animal Veterinary Association. 2002 CAAT Recognition Award for work on anaesthesia and analgesia. 2003 Solvay Pharmaceuticals prize, 2003. BSAVA/Blue Cross JA Wight award for contributions to companion animal welfare. 2004 BVA Dalrymple-Champneys Cup and Medal for contributions to animal welfare, 2005 International Academy of Pain Management Pfizer Award, 2006 Prince Laurent Foundation Award for Research Contributions to Animal Welfare, 2006 Eurotox/HSI/P&G Animal Welfare Award, 2007, FELASA Award, 2007, ICLAS Ben Cohen Award, 2008, Honorary Diplomate, American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2008, Honorary Fellowship, Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons,2007 International Committee for Laboratory Animal Science "Ben Cohen Award" for contributions to Laboratory Animal Welfare
2007 FELASA award, for research work leading to advances in pain assessment and management in laboratory animals. 2009 Markovitz Medal, for contributions to pain alleviation, Academy of Surgical Research
2009 CAAT Charles River Refinement Award, 2011 Honorary Doctorate, University of Ghent
Bird-watching, photography, walking, cookery and computer gaming
Welfare of animals used in biomedical research, and in particular issues associated with pain and distress. Comparative aspects of pain assessment and alleviation. Animal anaesthesia and the neurophysiogical effects of anaesthesia.
Our research group aims to develop improved methods of analgesia and anaesthesia for use in animals. We are also interested in comparative aspects of pain and analgesia. We also disseminate this information by developing training materials for research workers.
We aim to develop the comparative aspects of our research in pain assessment and alleviation. In particular, we are aiming to develop means of assessing the affective component of pain. We also aim to develop more humane methods of euthanasia of laboratory animals.
Head of research group
Comparative anaesthesia, analgesia, and other related areas.
Invited speaker at international conferences (eg World Congress of Veterinary Anaesthesia, World Congress of Anaesthesia, World Congress on Alternatives to Animal use in the Life Sciences). Awarded BVA Dalrymple-Champneys Cup and Medal for contributions to animal welfare (2005), International Academy of Pain Management Pfizer Award
(2006), Prince Laurent Foundation Award for Research Contributing to Animal Welfare
(2006) Eurotox/HSI/P&G Animal Welfare Award (2006)2007 International Committee for Laboratory Animal Science "Ben Cohen Award" for contributions to Laboratory Animal Welfare
2007 FELASA award, for research work leading to advances in pain assessment and management in laboratory animals.2008 Honorary Fellowship, Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, 2008 Honorary Diplomate, American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2009 Markovitz Medal, Academy of Surgical Research,2009 CAAT Charles River Refinement Award, 2011, Honorary Doctorate, University of Ghent
Funding 2007-12 Wellcome Trust (249k), BBSRC (£307k), Solvay Pharmaceuticals (£38k), UFAW (£73k), NC3Rs (£380k), Pfizer plc (£85k), NC3Rs (£245k), NC3rs (£295k), ACLAM (£39k), Swedish Agriculture Board (£29k)
Our work on novel measures of affective state has direct relevance to pharmaceutical company research in both pain and addiction.
Co-teach module in Pharmacology, and lecture on animal welfare on a number of different undergraduate courses
Home Office training modules for new research workers. Workshops on anaesthesia and pain management for research workers, veterinarians and others.
- Bertrand HGMJ, Thomas AA, Ellen YC, Dorward RS, Flecknell PA. A surgical approach in the treatment of preputial gland abscesses in mice. BMC Veterinary Research 2016, 12, 16.
- Bertrand HGMJ, Ellen YC, O'Keefe S, Flecknell PA. Comparison of the effects of ketamine and fentanyl-midazolam-medetomidine for sedation of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). BMC Veterinary Research 2016, 12, 93.
- Mendl M, Bennett R, Collins L, Davies A, Flecknell P, Green L, Hurst J, Lawrence A, Statham P, Turnbull J. Enhancing collaboration in the UK animal welfare research community. Veterinary Record 2016, 178(6), 138-139.
- Flecknell P, Clutton E, Murphy K, Bradbury G, Taylor P. Hospice and palliative care. Veterinary Record 2016, 178(19), 476-476.
- Lidster K, Jefferys JG, Blumcke I, Crunelli V, Flecknell P, Frenguelli BG, Gray WP, Kaminski R, Pitkanen A, Ragan I, Shah M, Simonato M, Treyelyan A, Volk H, Walker M, Yates N, Prescott MJ. Opportunities for improving animal welfare in rodent models of epilepsy and seizures. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 2016, 260, 2-25.
- Miller AL, Kitson GL, Skalkoyannis B, Flecknell PA, Leach MC. Using the mouse grimace scale and behaviour to assess pain in CBA mice following vasectomy. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 2016, (ePub ahead of Print).
- Hill SL, Thomas SHL, Flecknell PA, Thomas AA, Morris CM, Henderson D, Dunn M, Blain PG. Rapid and equivalent systemic bioavailability of the antidotes HI-6 and dicobalt edetate via the intraosseous and intravenous routes. Emergency Medicine Journal 2015, 32(8), 626-631.
- Amer AO, Probert PM, Dunn M, Knight M, Vallance AE, Flecknell PA, Oakley F, Cameron I, White SA, Blain PG, Wright MC. Sustained Isoprostane E2 Elevation, Inflammation and Fibrosis after Acute Ischaemia-Reperfusion Injury Are Reduced by Pregnane X Receptor Activation. PLoS ONE 2015, 10(8), e0136173.
- Coulthard MG, Crosier J, Griffiths C, Smith J, Drinnan M, Whitaker M, Beckwith R, Matthews JNS, Flecknell P, Lambert HJ. Haemodialysing babies weighing <8 kg with the Newcastle infant dialysis and ultrafiltration system (Nidus): comparison with peritoneal and conventional haemodialysis. Pediatric Nephrology 2014, 29(10), 1873-1881.
- Roughan JV, Coulter CA, Flecknell PA, Thomas HD, Sufka KJ. The Conditioned Place Preference Test for Assessing Welfare Consequences and Potential Refinements in a Mouse Bladder Cancer Model. PLoS One 2014, 9(8), e103362.
- Burnside WM, Flecknell PA, Cameron AI, Thomas AA. A comparison of medetomidine and its active enantiomer dexmedetomidine when administered with ketamine in mice. BMC Veterinary Research 2013, 9, 48.
- Rocha GS, Roughan J, Leach M, Flecknell P, Ingram CD, Brandt K. Antinociceptive Activities of Hyptis crenata Pohl. In: II International Symposium on Medicinal and Nutraceutical Plants. 2013, New Delhi, India: International Society for Horticultural Science.
- Wright-Williams S, Flecknell PA, Roughan JV. Comparative Effects of Vasectomy Surgery and Buprenorphine Treatment on Faecal Corticosterone Concentrations and Behaviour Assessed by Manual and Automated Analysis Methods in C57 and C3H Mice. PLoS ONE 2013, 8(9), e75948.
- Miller AL, Wright-Williams SL, Flecknell PA, Roughen JV. A comparison of abdominal and scrotal approach methods of vasectomy and the influence of analgesic treatment in laboratory mice. Laboratory Animals 2012, 46(4), 304-310.
- Thomas AA, Leach MC, Flecknell PA. An alternative method of endotracheal intubation of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Laboratory Animals 2012, 46(1), 71-76.
- Thomas AA, Flecknell PA, Golledge HDR. Combining Nitrous Oxide with Carbon Dioxide decreases the time to loss of consciousness during euthanasia in mice — refinement of animal welfare?. PLoS One 2012, 7(3), e32290.
- Keating SCJ, Thomas AA, Flecknell PA, Leach MC. Evaluation of EMLA Cream for Preventing Pain during Tattooing of Rabbits: Changes in Physiological, Behavioural and Facial Expression Responses. PLoS One 2012, 7(9), e44437.
- Brieuc V, Flecknell P, Miller A, Thomas A, Leach M. Peut-on utilliser les expressions faciales pour étudier la douleur chez les rongeurs? (Can we use facial expressions to study pain in rodents?). STAL 2012, 38(3), 33-45.
- Prescott MJ, Brown VJ, Flecknell PA, Garrod K, Lemon RN, Parker AJ, Ryder K, Schultz W, Scott L, Watson J, Whitfield L. Response to Westlund's commentary: 'Can conditioned reinforcers and variable-Ratio Schedules make food- and fluid control redundant?'. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 2012, 204(1), 206-209.
- Leach MC, Klaus K, Miller AL, Scotto di Perrotolo M, Sotocinal SG, Flecknell PA. The Assessment of Post-Vasectomy Pain in Mice using Behaviour and the Mouse Grimace Scale. PloS One 2012, 7(4), e35656.
- Miller AL, Flecknell PA, Leach MC, Roughan JV. A comparison of a manual and an automated behavioural analysis method for assessing post-operative pain in mice. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 2011, 131(3-4), 138-144.
- Flecknell P, Leach M, Bateson M. Affective state and quality of life in mice. Pain 2011, 152(5), 963-964.
- Leach MC, Coulter CA, Richardson CA, Flecknell PA. Are We Looking in the Wrong Place? Implications for Behavioural-Based Pain Assessment in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculi) and Beyond?. PLoS One 2011, 6(3), e13347.
- Coulter CA, Flecknell PA, Leach MC, Richardson CA. Reported analgesic administration to rabbits undergoing experimental surgical procedures. BMC Veterinary Research 2011, 7, 12.
- Golledge HDR, Lukic J, Flecknell PA. The effect of behavioural state and cage environment on responses to euthanasia with isoﬂurane or carbon dioxide in BALB/c mice. In: Altex: 8th World Congress. 2011, Montreal, Canada: Springer Spektrum.
- Leach MC, Bailey HE, Dickinson AL, Roughan JV, Flecknell PA. A preliminary investigation into the practicality of use and duration of action of slow-release preparations of morphine and hydromorphone in laboratory rats. Laboratory Animals 2010, 44(1), 59-65.
- Murphy KL, Roughan JV, Baxter MG, Flecknell PA. Anaesthesia with a combination of ketamine and medetomidine in the rabbit: effect of premedication with buprenorphine. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 2010, 37(3), 222-229.
- Flecknell PA. Do mice have a pain face?. Nature Methods 2010, 7(6), 437-439.
- Leach MC, Forrester AR, Flecknell PA. Influence of preferred foodstuffs on the antinociceptive effects of orally administered buprenorphine in laboratory rats. Laboratory Animals 2010, 44(1), 54-58.
- ScottodiPerrotolo M, Miller AL, Leach MC, Flecknell PA. Mesure de la fiabilité et de la precision des expressions facials pour évaluer la douler chez la souris. STAL 2010, 36(4), 49-58.
- Allweiler S, Leach MC, Flecknell PA. The use of propofol and sevoflurane for surgical anaesthesia in New Zealand White rabbits. Laboratory Animals 2010, 44(2), 113-117.
- Roughan JV, Wright-Williams SL, Flecknell PA. Automated analysis of postoperative behaviour: assessment of HomeCageScan as a novel method to rapidly identify pain and analgesic effects in mice. Laboratory Animals 2009, 43(1), 17-26.
- Leach MC, Allweiler S, Richardson C, Roughan JV, Narbe R, Flecknell PA. Behavioural effects of ovariohysterectomy and oral administration of meloxicam in laboratory housed rabbits. Research in Veterinary Science 2009, 87(2), 336-347.
- Dickinson AL, Leach MC, Flecknell PA. Influence of early neonatal experience on nociceptive responses and analgesic effects in rats. Laboratory Animals 2009, 43(1), 11-16.
- Flecknell PA. Laboratory Animal Anaesthesia. London: Academic Press, 2009.
- Coulter CA, Flecknell PA, Richardson CA. Reported analgesic administration to rabbits, pigs, sheep, dogs and non-human primates undergoing experimental surgical procedures. Laboratory Animals 2009, 43(3), 232-238.
- Stokes EL, Flecknell PA, Richardson CA. Reported analgesic and anaesthetic administration to rodents undergoing experimental surgical procedures. Laboratory Animals 2009, 43(2), 149-154.
- Dickinson AL, Leach MC, Flecknell PA. The analgesic effects of oral paracetamol in two strains of mice undergoing vasectomy. Laboratory Animals 2009, 43(4), 357-361.
- Rocha G, Roughan JV, Leach MC, Flecknell PA, Ingram CD, Brandt K. Traditional use, chemical analysis and antinociceptive effects of Hyptis crenato Pohl. In: Planta Medica: 57th International Congress and Annual Meeting of the Society for Medicinal Plant and Natural Product Research. 2009, Geneva, Switzerland: Georg Thieme Verlag.
- Flecknell P. Analgesia from a veterinary perspective. British Journal of Anaesthesia 2008, 101(1), 121-124.
- Flecknell P, Gledhill J, Richardson C. Assessing animal health and welfare and recognising pain and distress. Altex 2007, 24, 82-83.
- Wright-Williams SL, Courade J-P, Richardson CA, Roughan JV, Flecknell PA. Effects of vasectomy surgery and meloxicam treatment on faecal corticosterone levels and behaviour in two strains of laboratory mouse. Pain 2007, 130(1-2), 108-118.
- Richardson CA, Niel LE, Leach MC, Flecknell PA. Evaluation of the efficacy of a novel electronic pain assessment device, the Pain Gauge®, for measuring postoperative pain in rats. Laboratory Animals 2007, 41(1), 46-54.
- Roughan JV, Flecknell PA. Training in behaviour-based post-operative pain scoring in rats - An evaluation based on improved recognition of analgesic requirements. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 2006, 96(3-4), 327-342.
- Richardson CA, Flecknell PA. Anaesthesia and post-operative analgesia following experimental surgery in laboratory rodents: Are we making progress?. ATLA Alternatives to Laboratory Animals 2005, 33(2), 119-127.
- Orr HE, Roughan JV, Flecknell PA. Assessment of ketamine and medetomidine anaesthesia in the domestic rabbit. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 2005, 32(5), 271-279.
- Flecknell PA, Roughan JV. Assessing pain in animals - Putting research into practice. In: UFAW International Symposium Science in the Service of Animal Welfare. 2004, Edinburgh: Animal Welfare: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare.
- Roughan JV, Flecknell PA. Behaviour-based assessment of the duration of laparotomy-induced abdominal pain and the analgesic effects of carprofen and buprenorphine in rats. Behavioural Pharmacology 2004, 15(7), 461-472.
- Roughan JV, Flecknell PA, Davies BR. Behavioural assessment of the effects of tumour growth in rats and the influence of tne analgesics carprofen and meloxicam. Laboratory Animals 2004, 38(3), 286-296.
- Sabrine N, Platt MPW, Roughan JV, Flecknell PA. [abstract] Assessment of post-operative pain in infants and neonates. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology 2004, 22(3), 237.
- Flecknell PA. Anaesthesia of Rodents and Rabbits. In: D. McKelvey and K.W. Hollingshead, ed. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 2003.
- Antunes LM, Golledge HD, Roughan JV, Flecknell PA. Comparison of electroencephalogram activity and auditory evoked responses during isoflurane and halothane anaesthesia in the rat. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 2003, 30(1), 15-23.
- Antunes LM, Roughan JV, Flecknell PA. Effects of different propofol infusion rates on EEG activity and AEP responses in rats. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2003, 26(5), 369-376.
- Roughan JV, Flecknell PA. Evaluation of a short duration behaviour-based post-operative pain scoring system in rats. European Journal of Pain 2003, 7(5), 397-406.
- Antunes LM, Roughan JV, Flecknell PA. Excitatory effects of fentanyl upon the rat electroencephalogram and auditory-evoked potential responses during anaesthesia. European Journal of Anaesthesiology 2003, 20(10), 800-808.
- Rao JN, Clark SC, Ali S, Kirby J, Flecknell PA, Dark JH. Improvements in lung compliance after pulmonary transplantation: Correlation with interleukin 8 expression. European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery 2003, 23(4), 497-502.
- Roughan JV, Flecknell PA. Pain assessment and control in laboratory animals. Laboratory Animals 2003, 37(2), 172-172.
- Hedenqvist P, Orr HE, Roughan JV, Antunes LM, Flecknell PA. Anaesthesia with ketamine/medetomidine in the rabbit: influence of route of administration and the effect of combination with butorphanol. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 2002, 29(1), 14-19.
- Roughan JV, Flecknell PA. Buprenorphine: a reappraisal of its antinociceptive effects and therapeutic use in alleviating post-operative pain in animals. Laboratory Animals 2002, 36(3), 322-343.
- Laidlaw A, Flecknell P, Rees JL. Production of acute and chronic itch with histamine and contact sensitizers in the mouse and guinea pig. Experimental Dermatology 2002, 11(4), 285-291.
- Coulthard MG, Flecknell P, Orr H, Manas D, O'Donnell M. Renal scaring caused by vesicoureteric reflux and urinary infection: A study in pigs. Pediatric Nephrology 2002, 17(7), 481-484.
- Flecknell PA. Replacement, reduction and refinement. ALTEX 2002, 19(2), 73-78.
- Flecknell P. Replacement, reduction and refinement. In: ALTEX Alternativen zu Tierexperimenten: Symposium on Use of Animals in Research: A Science-Society Controversy. 2002, Mainz, Germany: Spektrum Akademischer Verlag GmbH.
- Levett D, Flecknell PA, Rudland PS, Barraclough R, Neal DE, Mellon JK, Davies BR. Transfection of S100A4 produces metastatic variants of an orthotopic model of bladder cancer. American Journal of Pathology 2002, 160(2), 693-700.
- Flecknell PA. Analgesia of small mammals. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice 2001, 4(1), 47-56.
- Roughan JV, Flecknell PA. Behavioural effects of laparotomy and analgesic effects of ketoprofen and carprofen in rats. Pain 2001, 90(1-2), 65-74.
- Flecknell PA, Raptopoulous D, Gasthuys F, Clarke K, Taylor P. Castration of horses and analgesia . Veterinary Record 2001, 149(5), 159-160.
- Aitchison JD, Orr HE, Flecknell PA, Kirby JA, Dark JH. Functional assessment of non-heart-beating donor lungs: Prediction of post-transplant function. European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery 2001, 20(1), 187-194.
- Hedenqvist P, Roughan JV, Antunes L, Orr H, Flecknell PA. Induction of anaesthesia with desflurane and isoflurane in the rabbit. Laboratory Animals 2001, 35(2), 172-179.
- Flecknell P. Recognition and assessment of pain in animals. In: International Congress and Symposium Series - Royal Society of Medicine. 2001.
- Hedenqvist P, Roughan JV, Flecknell PA. Effects of repeated anaesthesia with ketamine/medetomidine and of pre-anaesthetic administration of buprenorphine in rats. Laboratory Animals 2000, 34(2), 207-211.
- Roughan JV, Flecknell PA. Effects of surgery and analgesic administration on spontaneous behaviour in singly housed rats. Research in Veterinary Science 2000, 69(3), 283-288.
- Flecknell PA, Waterman-Pearson AE. Pain Management in Animals. United Kingdom: W.B. Saunders Co. Ltd, 2000.
- Hedenqvist P, Roughan JV, Flecknell PA. Sufentanil and medetomidine anaesthesia in the rat and its reversal with atipamezole and butorphanol. Laboratory Animals 2000, 34(3), 244-251.
- Clowry GJ, Flecknell PA. The successful use of fentanyl/fluanisone ('Hypnorm') as an anaesthetic for intracranial surgery in neonatal rats. Laboratory Animals 2000, 34(3), 260-264.
- Hayes JH, Flecknell PA. A comparison of pre- and post-surgical administration of bupivacaine or buprenorphine following laparotomy in the rat. Laboratory Animals 1999, 33(1), 16-23.
- Clark SC, Sudarshan CD, Khanna R, Roughan JV, Flecknell PA, Dark JH. A new porcine model of reperfusion injury after lung transplantation. Laboratory Animals 1999, 33(2), 135-142.
- Flecknell PA, Orr HE, Roughan JV, Stewart R. Comparison of the effects of oral or subcutaneous carprofen or ketoprofen in rats undergoing laparotomy. Veterinary Record 1999, 144(3), 65-67.
- Flecknell PA, Roughan JV, Hedenqvist P. Induction of anaesthesia with sevoflurane and isoflurane in the rabbit. Laboratory Animals 1999, 33(1), 41-46.
- Clark SC, Sudarshan C, Roughan J, Flecknell PA, Dark JH. Modulation of reperfusion injury after single lung transplantation by pentoxifylline, inositol polyanions, and SIN-1. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 1999, 117(3), 556-564.
- Roughan JV, Burzaco Ojeda O, Flecknell PA. The influence of pre-anaesthetic administration of buprenorphine on the anaesthetic effects of ketamine/medetomidine and pentobarbitone in rats and the consequences of repeated anaesthesia. Laboratory Animals 1999, 33(3), 234-242.
- Flecknell PA, Roughan JV, Stewart R. Use of oral buprenorphine ('buprenorphine jello') for postoperative analgesia in rats - A clinical trial. Laboratory Animals 1999, 33(2), 169-174.
- FLECKNELL PA. ANESTHESIA OF GUINEA-PIGS. VETERINARY RECORD 1987, 120(8), 167-167.