Dr Gary Caldwell
Senior Lecturer in Applied Marine Biology
- Email: email@example.com
- Telephone: +44 (0)191 208 6660/5325
- Fax: +44 (0) 191 208 7891
- Address: School of Marine Science and Technology
Ridley Building, Rm 575
Newcastle upon Tyne
Dr Caldwell is Senior Lecturer in Applied Marine Biology.
Roles and Responsibilities
'Marine Resources and Renewable Energy' research group leader.
Deputy-director for MaST postgraduate research.
B.Sc.(Hons 1st Class) Uni. Wales, Bangor.
Ph.D. Newcastle University
2005-6. Marine Biology Teaching Fellow, Newcastle University
2004. NSERC Postdoctoral Fellowship (University of Calgary and Environment Canada).
2003-4. Research Associate, Newcastle University, Soil Association Scotland.
My research interests and activites are broad in nature. The main research themes are described below.
ALGAE BIOFUELS, BIOTECHNOLOGY AND PROTEOMICS
I am active in the continued development of algae (both micro- and macroalgae) as potential sources of marine biofuels and bioactive products. There are active programmes in seaweed culture, seaweed anaerobic digestion (including the £2.8 million InnovateUK SeaGas project); microalgae culture management for high value chemical and biodiesel production (including the Euro 3.4 million H2020 project, Living Architecture); microalgae bioflocculation and harvesting; and energy production from marine biomass wastes. Recent work has focused on proteomic studies of microalgae, their grazers and associated microbial flora using MALDI-TOF-MS. I am also using Next Generation Sequencing to study the microbiome of algae cultivation systems.
Interests relate to plant-plant and plant-animal interactions which are mainly modulated by chemically driven processes, principally through the production of toxic metabolites and/or the production of non-toxic but otherwise biologically active compounds. I am especially interested in the role of algal-derived compounds in driving aquatic food webs and their potential development for biotechnological and pharmaceutical exploitation. Recent work has concentrated on the functioning of bioactive diatom-derived polyunsaturated aldehydes in regulating the reproductive success of invertebrates. I am interested in both the factors and processes contributing to the formation and release of algal-derived bioactive molecules and the physiological and molecular responses of the target animals in respect of toxic endpoints and detoxification/cellular repair mechanisms.
ECOTOXICOLOGY AND MARINE VENOMS
I am interested in the biological response of organisms following exposure to xenobiotics and marine venoms.
I am currently working on the microbiomes associated with sea cucumber, seaweeds and macroalgae.
Current Postgraduate Supervision
Abdulbaset Abuissa (PhD) - Assessment of combined effects of ocean acidification and metal toxicity on selected marine invertebrates.
Muayad Abed Shihab Alkarawi (PhD) - Approaches for converting algae oil to fuel. Co-supervised with Dr Jon Lee.
Chelsea Brain (EngD) - Bioprocessing in microalgae. (Pending corrections).
Sana Akram Butt (PhD) - Toxicity of manufactured nanoparticles to marine biota. (Pending corrections).
Lucy Gorman (MPhil) - Exploring the venom of the lesser weever fish, Echiichthys vipera. Co-supervised with Dr Sarah Judge.
Warm In-Na (PhD) - Development of sustainable algae biocomposites for carbon capture. Co-supervised with Dr Jon Lee.
Fern Lyne (MPhil) - Gene expression in copepods feeding on toxic diets across multiple generations. Co-supervised with Prof. Tony Clare.
Rebecca Martin (PhD) - Silicone fouling-release coatings: Physical effects on the adhesion of marine fouling invertebrates with particular emphasis on membranous–based barnacles. Industry funded PhD studentship (International Paint) co-supervised with Prof. Tony Clare. (Pending corrections)
Alfonsina Milito (PhD, Open University) - Ovothiol, a marine antioxidant: discovery of its biological activities. Co-supervised with Dr Anna Polumbo.
Belinda Njumo (PhD) - Developing algae biofuel technology for Cameroon. Co-supervised with Dr Ethan Hack.
Emily O'Hara (MPhil) - Nematocyst and venom analysis in sea anemones. Co-supervised with Prof. John Bythell.
Adibi Rahiman (PhD) - Innovative solutions to optimize seaweed aquaculture in Malaysia. Co-supervised with Prof. Selina Stead and Prof. Tim Gray.
Josh Raine (MPhil) - Chemical ecology of diatom motility. Co-supervised with Prof. Tony Clare. (Pending examination)
Ilaria Spiga (MPhil) - Video and acoustic observations of the effects of anthropogenic noise in coastal areas.
Abbas Umar (PhD) - Novel approaches to continuous microalgae harvesting. Co-supervised with Dr Jon Lee.
Paul Whitworth (MPhil) - Microbial ecology of seaweed-fed anaerobic digesters
Leila Zhang (PhD) - Renewable energy-assessment of pretreatment and co-digestion strategies to optimize methane production from microalgae. Co-supervised with Dr Paul Sallis.
Completed PhDs under my supervision: Dr Rebecca Taylor [The role of diatom aldehydes in the benthos: grazing defence or diatom signal molecule?]; Dr Hannah Dunston [Impacts of algal biotoxins on the freshwater survival of Atlantic salmon]; Dr Helen Pagett [Characterising glycans involved in barnacle gregariousness]; Dr Susan Fitzer [Multigenerational effects of CO2-induced ocean acidification on the copepod Tisbe battagliai]; Dr Thea Coward [Foam fractionation: an effective technology for harvesting microalgae biomass]; Dr Hilary Redden [Seasonal aspects relating to the potential use of macroalgae as biofuel]; Dr Alessandra Gallina [The role of polyunsaturated aldehydes in the life and biology of the marine diatom Skeletonema marinoi in culture and in situ]; Dr Supanut Pairohakul [Evidence for polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in the ragworm (Nereis virens) and the lugworm (Arenicola marina)]; Dr Helen Graham [Determining the impacts of ocean acidification on reproductive and developmental fitness of marine invertebrates]; Dr Alanoud Rawdhan [Ultrastructural studies of micro-algae in infochemical manipulated mass culture]; Dr Guang Gao [Developing systems for the commercial culture of Ulva species in the UK]; Dr Norlaila Mohd Zanuri [The effects of environmental contaminants and ocean acidification on reproductive success in marine invertebrates]
Associate Editor for Invertebrate Reproduction and Development.
Member of Council, British Phycological Society.
Funding sources include:
Carbon Trust (Algae Biofuels Challenge)
Scottish Energy/ITI Energy (Opportunities in Seaweed Anaerobic Digestion)
Other funding sources remain confidential.
The majority of my work is industry orientated, particularly in the area of marine bioenergy and biotechnology.
Undergraduate Teaching (from 2014/15)
MST1101 Marine Biology (Module Leader)
MST1104 Marine Study Skills
MST2104 Marine Research and Employability Skills
MST2105 Marine Practcal Skills
MST3102 Advanced Marine Zoology (Marine Poisons, Venoms and Toxins)
MST3104/05/06/07 Research Project
Recent B.Sc. (Hons) projects supervised have included:
- Can cells of the sponge Halichondria panicea grow on glass microfibre filter paper?
- Tissue regeneration, spine biomineralisation and Notch signalling in the sea urchin, Psammechinus milers.
- Impact of C:N manipulation on bacterial communities in sea cucumber-based bioremediation systems.
- Does weever fish envenomation trigger oxidative stress?
- Does antibiotic treatment affect the growth of Ulva fronds?
- Effects of copper on the sea anemone Actinia equina in relation to reproduction, oxidative stress and histology.
- Impacts of short-term exposure to diatom-derived unsaturated aldehydes on swimming behaviours of copepods and rotifers.
- Effects of ibuprofen, diclofenac and sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on swimming behaviour in microalgae.
- Is heat treatment effective at degrading venom from the lesser weever fish, Echiichthys viper?
- Effects of nutrients, salinity, light intensity and temperature on growth rate and lipid production of a newly discovered chlorophyte, Tetraselmis indica.
- Effects of organic and inorganic chemicals on growth and lipid content of microalgae.
- The effect of temperature and copper stress on the population growth and protein expression of Tisbe battagliai under chronic and acute conditions.
- Algal-bacterial interactions: A case study using Dunaliella salina.
- Assessing the growth of Ulva lactuca under cultivationand identification of epiphytic bacteria potentially responsible for thallus degradation.
- What is the potential for hydrothermal carbonisation deployment in the Shetland Islands?
- The effects of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and ozone on microalgae harvesting and lipid extraction.
- Motility analysis of microalgae exposed to environmental toxicants.
- Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) as a tool for microalgae biotyping.
- Effects of oxylipin exposure on microalgae motility.
- Using three dimensional tracking spectroscopy to define the behavioural response of Artemia salina nauplii exposed to ultraviolet radiation.
- Heterotrophic growth and lipid production in selected microalgae species.
- Optimising culture conditions for carbohydrate yields from microalgae.
- Incorporation of microalgae into functional microbial fuel cells.
- Bioaccumulation of flame retardants in the marine food web.
- Metabolic exudates from Skeletonema marinoi induce bio-flocculation in marine microalgae.
- The kinetics of nitric oxide generation throughout the culture cycle of the marine diatom Skeletonema marinoi.
- Exploration of the swimming techniques based on physiology and hydrodynamics of a juvenile white beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris) using mimic tail design and testing.
- The fatty acid profile of Capitella sp. for use in commercial recirculating aquaculture systems.
- Analysis of the amino acid composition in Capitella sp. using Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography.
- Optimising nutrient levels and harvesting frequency during the culture of Nannochloropsis oculata for biofuel production.
- Anaerobic digestion of Laminaria digitata and co-digestion with glycerol.
- Effects of diatom-derived polyunsaturated aldehydes on the motility of Nereis virens sperm.
- Activation of vesicular sperm from three species of barnacle through the elevation of seawater pH.
- Gao G, Clare AS, Chatzidimitriou E, Rose C, Caldwell GS. Effects of ocean warming and acidification combined with eutrophication on chemical composition and functional properties of Ulva rigida. 2017. Submitted.
- Zanuri NM, Bentley MG, Caldwell GS. Assessing the impact of diclofenac, ibuprofen and sildenafil citrate (Viagra®) on the fertilisation biology of broadcast spawning marine invertebrates. 2017. Submitted.
- Robinson G, Caldwell GS, Jones CLW, Stead SM. Manipulating the carbon to nitrogen ratio of aquaculture effluent is key to culturing sea cucumbers without formulated feeds. 2016. Submitted.
- Gao G, Clare AS, Rose C, Caldwell GS. Intrinsic and extrinsic control of reproduction in the green tide-forming alga, Ulva rigida. Environmental and Experimental Botany 2017. In Press.
- Gao G, Clare AS, Rose C, Caldwell GS. Reproductive sterility increases the capacity to exploit the green seaweed Ulva rigida for commercial applications. Algal Research 2017, 24(Part A), 64-71.
- Armstrong R, Ferracina S, Caldwell G, Ieropoulos I, Rimbu G, Adamatzky A, Phillips N, De Lucrezia D, Imhof B, Hanczyc MM, Nogales J, Garcia J. Living Architecture (LIAR): Metabolically engineered building units. In: Heisel, F; Hebel, D, ed. Cultivated Building Materials: Industrialized Natural Resources for Architecture and Construction. Berlin: Birkhauser, 2017, pp.170-177. In Press.
- Brown LR, Caldwell GS. Tissue and spine regeneration in the temperate sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris. Invertebrate Reproduction and Development 2017, epub ahead of print.
- Nor AM, Gray TS, Caldwell GS, Stead SM. Is a cooperative approach to seaweed farming effectual? An analysis of the Seaweed Cluster Project (SCP), Malaysia. Journal of Applied Phycology 2016, (ePub ahead of print).
- Gao G, Clare AS, Rose C, Caldwell GS. Non-cryogenic preservation of thalli, germlings, and gametes of the green seaweed Ulva rigida. Aquaculture 2017, 473, 246-250.
- Robinson G, Caldwell GS, Wade MJ, Free A, Jones CLW, Stead SM. Profiling bacterial communities associated with sediment-based aquaculture bioremediation systems under contrasting redox regimes. Scientific Reports 2016, 6, 38850.
- Spiga I, Caldwell GS, Bruintjes R. Influence of Pile Driving on the Clearance Rate of the Blue Mussel, Mytilus edulis (L.). In: Fourth International Conference on the Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life. 2016, Dublin, Ireland: Acoustical Society of America.
- Gao G, Clare AS, Rose C, Caldwell GS. Eutrophication and warming-driven green tides (Ulva rigida) are predicted to increase under future climate change scenarios. Marine Pollution Bulletin 2017, 114(1), 439-447.
- Emami K, Nelson A, Hack E, Zhang JW, Green DH, Caldwell GS, Mesbahi E. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Discriminates Known Species and Marine Environmental Isolates of Pseudoalteromonas. Frontiers in Microbiology 2016, 7, 104.
- Graham H, Rastrick SPS, Findlay HS, Bentley MG, Widdicombe S, Clare AS, Caldwell G. Sperm motility and fertilisation success in an acidified and hypoxic environment. ICES Journal of Marine Science 2016, 73(3), 783-790.
- Robinson G, Caldwell GS, Jones CLW, Slater MJ, Stead SM. Redox stratification drives enhanced growth in a commercially important deposit-feeding invertebrate: implications for aquaculture bioremediation technologies. Aquaculture Environment Interactions 2015, 8, 1-13.
- Emami K, Hack E, Nelson A, Brain CM, Lyne FM, Mesbahi E, Day JG, Caldwell GS. Proteomic-based biotyping reveals hidden diversity within a microalgae culture collection: An example using Dunaliella. Scientific Reports 2015, 5, 10036.
- Coward T, Lee JGM, Caldwell GS. The effect of bubble size on the efficiency and economics of harvesting microalgae by foam flotation. Journal of Applied Phycology 2015, 27(2), 733-742.
- Brain CM, Caldwell GS. Improvements in the Synthesis of Phycocyanin. PCT/GB2015/050183, 27/01/2015.
- Tsaousis P, Wang Y, Roskilly AP, Caldwell GS. Algae to energy: Engine performance using raw algal oil. In: 6th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE2014. 2014, Taipei City, Taiwan: Elsevier.
- Coward T, Lee JGM, Caldwell GS. Harvesting microalgae by CTAB-aided foam flotation increases lipid recovery and improves fatty acid methyl ester characteristics. Biomass and Bioenergy 2014, 67, 354-362.
- Fitzer SC, Caldwell GS, Clare AS, Upstill-Goddard RC, Bentley MG. Response of copepods to elevated pCO2 and environmental copper as co-stressors – a multigenerational study. PLoS One 2013, 8(8), e71257.
- Gabilondo R, Graham H, Caldwell GS, Clare AS. Laboratory culture and evaluation of the tubeworm Ficopomatus enigmaticus for biofouling studies. Biofouling 2013, 29(7), 869-878.
- Coward T, Lee JGM, Caldwell GS. Development of a foam flotation system for harvesting microalgae biomass. Algal Research 2013, 2(2), 135-144.
- Hinks J, Edwards S, Sallis PJ, Caldwell GS. The steady state anaerobic digestion of Laminaria hyperborea – Effect of hydraulic residence on biogas production and bacterial community composition. Bioresource Technology 2013, 143, 221-230.
- Fitzer SC, Bishop JDD, Caldwell GS, Clare AS, Upstill-Goddard RC, Bentley MG. Visualisation of the copepod female reproductive system using confocal laser scanning microscopy and two-photon microscopy. Journal of Crustacean Biology 2012, 32(5), 685-692.
- Taylor RL, Rand JD, Caldwell GS. Treatment with Algae Extracts Promotes Flocculation, and Enhances Growth and Neutral Lipid Content in Nannochloropsis oculata—a Candidate for Biofuel Production. Marine Biotechnology 2012, 14(6), 774-781.
- Fitzer S, Caldwell GS, Close AJ, Clare AS, Upstill-Goddard RC, Bentley MG. Ocean acidification induces multi-generational decline in copepod naupliar production with possible conflict for reproductive resource allocation. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 2012, 418-419, 30-36.
- Pagett HE, Abrahams JL, Bones J, O'Donoghue N, Marles-Wright J, Lewis RJ, Harris JR, Caldwell GS, Rudd PM, Clare AS. Structural characterisation of the N-glycan moiety of the barnacle settlement-inducing protein complex (SIPC). Journal of Experimental Biology 2012, 215(7), 1192-1198.
- Taylor RL, Caldwell GS, Olive PJW, Bentley MG. The harpacticoid copepod Tisbe holothuriae is resistant to the insidious effects of polyunsaturated aldehyde-producing diatoms. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 2012, 413, 30-37.
- Wright S, Caldwell GS, Clare AS. Sperm activation in acorn barnacles by elevation of seawater pH. Invertebrate Reproduction and Development 2012, 56(1), 79-85.
- Caldwell GS, Fitzer S, Gillespie CS, Pickavance G, Turnbull E, Bentley MG. Ocean acidification takes sperm back in time. Invertebrate Reproduction and Development 2011, 55(4), 217-221.
- Ianora A, Bentley MG, Caldwell GS, Casotti R, Cembella AD, Engstrom-Ost J, Halsband C, Sonnenschein E, Legrande C, Llewellyn CA, Paldaviciene A, Pilkaityte R, Pohnert G, Razinkovas A, Romana G, Tilman U, Vaiciute R. The relevance of marine chemical ecology to plankton and ecosystem function: an emerging field. Marine Drugs 2011, 9(9), 1625-1648.
- Caldwell GS, Lewis C, Pickavance G, Taylor RL, Bentley MG. Exposure to copper and a cytotoxic polyunsaturated aldehyde induces reproductive failure in the marine polychaete Nereis virens (Sars). Aquatic Toxicology 2011, 104(1-2), 126-134.
- Simon CA, Bentley MG, Caldwell GS. 2,4-Decadienal: Exploring a novel approach for the control of polychaete pests on cultured abalone. Aquaculture 2010, 310(1-2), 52-60.
- Caldwell GS, Pagett HE. Marine Glycobiology: Current Status and Future Perspectives. Marine Biotechnology 2010, 12(3), 241-252.
- Caldwell GS. The Influence of Bioactive Oxylipins from Marine Diatoms on Invertebrate Reproduction and Development. Marine Drugs 2009, 7(3), 367-400.
- Smith THE, Caldwell GS. Computational assessment of the fluid flow around coasting mature male blue sharks, Prionace glauca (L.). Journal of Marine Biology 2009, 2009, Article ID 861590.
- Watson SB, Caldwell G, Pohnert G. Fatty acids and oxylipins as semiochemicals. In: Arts, M.T., Brett, M.T., Kainz, M.J, ed. Lipids in Aquatic Ecosystems. Dordrecht: Springer, 2009, pp.65-92.
- Taylor RL, Caldwell GS, Dunstan HJ, Bentley MG. Short-term impacts of polyunsaturated aldehyde-producing diatoms on the harpacticoid copepod, Tisbe holothuriae. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 2007, 341(1), 60-69.
- Taylor RL, Caldwell GS, Bentley MG. Toxicity of algal-derived aldehydes to two invertebrate species: Do heavy metal pollutants have a synergistic effect?. Aquatic Toxicology 2005, 74(1), 20-31.
- Caldwell GS, Lewis C, Olive PJW, Bentley MG. Exposure to 2,4-decadienal negatively impacts upon marine invertebrate larval fitness. Marine Environmental Research 2005, 59(5), 405-417.
- Paffenhofer GA, Ianora A, Miralto A, Turner JT, Kleppel GS, Ribera D'Alcala M, Casotti R, Caldwell GS, Pohnert G, Fontana A, Muller-Navarra D, Jonasdottir S, Armbrust V, Bamstedt U, Ban S, Bentley MG, Boersma M, Bundy M, Buttino I, Calbet A, Carlotti F, Carotenuto Y, D'Ippolito G, Frost B, Guisande C, Lampert W, Lee RF, Mazza S, Mazzocchi MG, Nejstgaard JC, Poulet SA, Romano G, Smetacek V, Uye S, Wakeham S, Watson S, Wichard T. Colloquium on diatom-copepod interactions. Marine Ecology Progress Series 2005, 286, 293-305.
- Caldwell GS, Watson SB, Bentley MG. How to assess toxin ingestion and post-ingestion partitioning in zooplankton?. Journal of Plankton Research 2004, 26(12), 1369-1377.
- Lewis C, Caldwell GS, Bentley MG, Olive PJW. Effects of a bioactive diatom-derived aldehyde on developmental stability in Nereis virens (Sars) larvae: An analysis using fluctuating asymmetry. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 2004, 304(1), 1-16.
- Caldwell GS, Bentley MG, Olive PJW. First evidence of sperm motility inhibition by the diatom-derived aldehyde 2E,4E–decadienal. Marine Ecology Progress Series 2004, 273, 97-108.
- Caldwell GS, Bentley MG, Olive PJW. The use of a brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay to assess the toxicity of diatom extracts and short chain aldehydes. Toxicon 2003, 42(3), 301-306.
- Caldwell GS, Olive PJW, Bentley MG. Inhibition of embryonic development and fertilization in broadcast spawning marine invertebrates by water soluble diatom extracts and the diatom toxin 2-trans,4-trans decadienal. Aquatic Toxicology 2002, 60(1-2), 123-137.