FORCE - Future of Reefs in a Changing Environment


Start/End: January 2010 to December 2014
Project Leader: Professor Nicolas Polunin
Sponsors: EU Framework Programme 7
Partners: University of Exeter, Amsterdam, Wageningen and Bremen Universities, University of the West Indies, University of Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro Marino, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur and University of Queensland


The FORCE project is an integrated research project which takes an ecosystem approach, linking social and ecological aspects towards managing Caribbean coral reefs in the face of climate change. The overall scientific objective of FORCE is to identify the most appropriate management interventions for coral reefs and the governance structures needed for their implementation. The FORCE team comprises leading scientists from Europe and the Caribbean region contributing a diverse range of expertise to the project. Combining researchers from the social and natural sciences, the FORCE project aims to understand how people affect reefs and how reef health affects people.


Professor Nick Polunin
Professor of Marine Environmental Science

Professor Selina Stead
Professor of Marine Governance and Environmental Science

Dr Claire Fitzsimmons
Teaching Fellow

Dr Steven Newman
Research Associate

Dr Johanna Forster
Research Associate