Professor Justin Durham
Professor of Orofacial Pain and Hon. Consultant Oral Surgeon
- Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Address: Room D5.019 Level 5,
School of Dental Sciences,
Qualifications (in reverse chronological order):
- Postgraduate Cert. Pain Management, Edinburgh University.
- Postgraduate Cert. Health Economics, Aberdeen University.
- Diplomate of American Board of Orofacial Pain. USA Board examination for orofacial pain practice.
- Intercollegiate Fellowship in Dental Surgery RCS Edinburgh. FDS (OS) RCS.
- Doctor of Philosophy, Newcastle University - Ideologies and outcomes in Temporomandibular Disorders
- Postgraduate Cert. Academic Practice, Newcastle University with Distinction
- Membership of Faculty of Dental Surgery, Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) of Edinburgh. MFDS RCS(Ed)
- Bachelor of Dental Surgery, Newcastle University. Distinction Paedodontics
- International Association of Dental Research
- International RDC/TMD Consortium Network
- Association of British Academic Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
- Fellow of Higher Education Academy
- British Pain Society
- European Academy of Craniomandibular Disorders elected member
Honours and Awards
Roles and Responsibilities
- Faculty of Medical Sciences' Director of Externally Funded Clinical Fellowships (2016 onwards)
- Undergraduate clinical teaching lead for Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery (2014 onwards)
- Finals examination committee and standard setting for all OMFSci finals questions – 2007 onwards
- Training programme Director for Health Education North-East's Specialist training programme in Oral Surgery (2014 onwards)
- Member of British Pain Society's working groups on: Undergraduate Health Professional Pain Curriculum (2011-2016); Epidemiology and clinical coding of chronic pain (2013 onwards).
- Chair of SAC working group for work based assessments for oral surgery core competency specialist training – 2010-2012
- Secretary of the UK specialist interest group in Orofacial pain and Temporomandibular Disorders 2009 onwards
- Clinical introductory course lead 2009-2014
- Chair of working party for Undergraduate Education (Association of British Academic Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons) 2007-2013
- Electives Director 2007-2009
- Member of working party for Undergraduate Education (Association of British Academic Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons) 2005-2007
Temporomandibular Disorders (TMDs) and persistent (chronic) orofacial pain
Quality of life
Professional and Patients' experiences or perceptions of care
My current research programme addresses both translational gaps and consists of two broad work streams:
1) Acute inflammatory dental pain: enabling care and reducing chronification:
This work stream seeks to: i) ascertain the reasons behind delayed attendance for acute inflammatory dental pain and intervene in order to enable and facilitate patients into earlier and definitive care thereby reducing the size of the cohort experiencing acute dental pain (for a prolonged duration) and thereby reducing the risk of chronification to “phantom tooth pain” (Atypical Odontalgia, Persistant Dentoalveolar Pain [PDAP]); ii) unpick the mechanisms behind the transition from acute dental to chronic "phantom" pain in order to be able to understand the therapeutic targets available at the time of treatment so we can develop more effective treatments to prevent the transition.
Collaborators in this work stream include individuals from: Newcastle's Institutes of Cellular Medicine and Neuroscience, University of Washington, and the Orofacial Pain research team at Minnesota University
2) Persistent orofacial pain care pathways and management
This varied work stream builds on the data generated from the NIHR funded DEEP study (http://research.ncl.ac.uk/deepstudy) on care pathways in persistent orofacial pain and seeks to address many of the initial problems patients and health care professionals face at the first point of contact with healthcare:
- Diagnosis of Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) and PDAP
- Stratification of care in persistent orofacial pain
- Gold standard self-management of TMD?
- Diet and nutrition in TMD
- Cognition's role in TMD pain
- Topical neuromodulation of persistent neuropathic orofacial pain for example some types of PDAP.
Collaborators in this work stream include individuals from: Newcastle's Institute of Neuroscience, King's College, University of Sheffield, University of Zurich, University of Ghent, Minnesota University.
Research Roles and Postgraduate Supervision:
Previous supervisor of seven successful MSc theses, one succesful MPhil thesis and three successful PhD theses:
- MSc on Qualitative exploration of impact of periodontal disease on patients' daily lives
- MSc on Validating short form of Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD
- MSc on Factors affecting provision of orthodontic treatment by Primary care
- MSc on Investigation of QOL in patients with periodontal disease
- MSc on Defining normality in orthodontics: the patients’ perception
- MSc on Patient based outcome measure in TMD
- MSc on Does the method of delivery of OHIP-49 affect the outcome score?
- MPhil on Process of choice in Prosthodontic care in UK and Germany
- PhD on Outcomes and impacts of blow-out fractures of the orbit (2nd supervisor)
- PhD on Evidence-based management and clinical decision-making in TMJ Disc Displacement without reduction (Primary supervisor)
- PhD on Effects of topical neuromodulatory medications on orofacial tissue in vitro (Primary supervisor)
2016 President-Elect of RDC/TMD consortium - a network of IADR.
2016 Awarded King James IV Professorship by Royal College of Surgeons' of Edinburgh
2012-2017 NIHR Clinician Scientist
2010 - Educational Research Group Faculty Award. IADR, Barcelona, Spain.
Awarded by International Association of Dental Research Educational Research Group
2008 Outstanding Post-doctoral abstract award. IADR, Toronto, Canada.
Awarded by International Association of Dental Research Behavioral, Epidemiology and Health Services Research Group
2009 - Inaugural Vice-Chancellor's award for excellence in teaching and learning
Awarded by Newcastle University
I held a prestigious NIHR Clinician Scientist award from 2012 to 2017 which funded the DEEP study - Developing Effective and Efficient care pathways in persistent orofacial Pain. This longitudinal cohort and cost analysis study has begun to produce data on the direct and indirect costs of the care pathways for persistent orofacial pain establishing their magnitude and using them as a proxy in order to predict treatment need and thereby provided stratified care.
In 2010 to be awarded the prestigious Lasby Fellowship from the University of Minnesota. This was awarded to allow me to perform collaborative research on Atypical Odontalgia (Persistent Dentoalveolar Pain disorder [PDAP]) in order to develop a screening instrument for this difficult to diagnose and rare condition using a well described cohort of patients at the University's orofacial pain clinic.
Invited contributions to books:
- the Oral cavity anatomy chapter of the 40th edition of Gray's anatomy
- the Oral and maxillofacial surgery definitions of Harty's Dental Dictionary
- module on Pain pathways for the e-den project
- the chapter on Temporomandibular disorders and chronic orofacial pain in Principles of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
- the chapter on Preparing the mouth for prostheses in Principles of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
- the chapter on Acute manifestations of non-odontogenic pain in The Dental Emergency clinic
- the chapter on Temporomandibular disorders in the BDJ Book on Oral surgery
- the chapter on Oral and Maxillofacial Trauma in the BDJ Book on Oral surgery
- the chapter on Antral Surgery in the BDJ Book on Oral surgery
- the chapter on Self-report assessment in IASP book on Orofacial Pain
- the chapter on Biopsychosocial aspects of orofacial pain in Springer book on Contemporary Oral Medicine
Funding (includes PI, CoI, and postgraduate student funding):
- NIHR Clinician Scientist
- European Society of Endodontology
- Royal College of Physicians & Surgeons of Glasgow
- Joint Research Executive Scientific Committee of Royal Victoria Infirmary Trust
- Higher Education Academy UK
- Newcastle University Teaching and Learning Committee (Research innovations)
- Forschungsverbund Community Medicine University of Greifswald
- Faculty Teaching and Learning Committee, Newcastle University
- Lasby Fellowship, University of Minnesota
- American Academy of Orofacial Pain
The areas of the dental undergraduate course that I provide, or have provided, teaching input to, are:
- Head and Neck Anatomy course – previously demonstrating and lecturing
- Introduction to Dentistry course – practical teaching in suturing demonstration
- Course lead for Clinical Introductory Course 2009-2014
- Oral surgery block clinical allocation
- Dentistry, the Dentist and Public Health lecture series
- Stage 3 OSCE examiner
- Stage 3 In-course examiner
- Stage 3 Human diseases examiner
- Stage 4 TMDs and Differential Diagnosis of Orofacial Pain lecture series
- Stage 4 Oral diseases lecture series
- Stage 4 Human diseases OSCE examiner
- Stage 4 Human diseases In-course examiner
- Oral surgery block clinical allocation - Minor oral surgery teaching
- Oral diseases lecture series
- Finals examination lead for Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences
- Pre-finals seminar program in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
I am also the clinical teaching lead for the Undergraduate clinical course in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.
- Course tutor on Newcastle University’s postgraduate diploma in clinical implant dentistry
- Examiner for Intercollegiate Fellowship in Oral Surgery (FDS[OS])
- MFDS examiner for RCS (Edin)
- Previous examiner for Intercollegiate Membership in Oral Surgery
- Breckons M, Bissett S, Exley C, Araujo-Soares V, Durham J. Care Pathways in Persistent Orofacial Pain: Qualitative Evidence from the DEEP Study. Journal of Dental Research Clinical and Translational Research 2017, 2(1), 48-57.
- Alonso BF, Nixdorf DR, Shueb SS, John MT, Law AS, Durham J. Examining the Sensitivity and Specificity of two screening instruments: odontogenic or temporomandibular disorder pain?. Journal of Endodontics 2017, 43(1), 36-45.
- Macluskey M, Shepherd S, Carter E, Bulsara Y, Durham JA, Bell A, Dargue A, Emanuel C, Freeman C, Jones J, Khawaja N, Leeson R, Marley J, Andiappan M, Millsopp L, Nayyer N, Renton T, Taylor K, Thomson P, Toedtling V. A national follow-up survey of UK graduates opinion of undergraduate oral surgery teaching. European Journal of Dental Education 2016, 20(3), 174-179.
- Robinson LJ, Durham J, Newton JL. A systematic review of the comorbidity between Temporomandibular Disorders and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 2016, 43(4), 306-316.
- Currie CC, Stone SJ, Connolly J, Durham J. Dental Pain in the Medical Emergency Department: A Cross-Sectional Study. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 2016, epub ahead of print.
- Al-Musawi M, Durham J, Whitworth JM, Stone SJ, Nixdorf DR, Valentine RA. Effect of topical neuromodulatory medications on oral and skin keratinocytes. Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine 2016, (ePub ahead of Print).
- Durham J, Shen J, Breckons M, Steele JG, Araujo-Soares V, Exley C, Vale L. Healthcare Cost and Impact of Persistent Orofacial Pain: The DEEP Study Cohort. Journal of Dental Research 2016, 95(10), 1147-1154.
- Herrero-Babiloni A, Nixdorf DR, Law AS, Moana-Filho EJ, Shueb SS, Nguyen RH, Durham J. Initial Accuracy Assessment Of The Modified S-Lanss For The Detection Of Neuropathic Orofacial Pain Conditions. Quintessence International 2016. In Press.
- Yule PL, Durham J, Wassell RW. Pain Part 6: Temporomandibular disorders. Dental Update 2016, 43(1), 39-48.
- Story WP, Durham J, Al-Baghdadi M, Steele J, Araujo-Soares V. Self-management in temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review of behavioural components. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 2016, 43(10), 759-770.
- Durham J, Al-Baghdadi M, Baad-Hansen L, Breckons M, Goulet JP, Lobbezoo F, List T, Michelotti A, Nixdorf DR, Peck CC, Raphael K, Schiffman E, Steele JG, Story W, Ohrbach R. Self-management programmes in TMD: results from an international Delphi process. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 2016, 43(12), 929-936.
- Robinson LJ, Durham J, MacLachlan L, Newton JL. Autonomic Function in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome With and Without Painful Temporomandibular Disorder. Fatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behaviour 2015, 3(4), 205-219.
- Durham J, Steele JG, Breckons M, Story W, Vale L. DEEP Study: does EQ-5D-5L measure the impacts of persistent oro-facial pain?. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 2015, 42(9), 643-650.
- Alhamdani F, Durham J, Greenwood M, Corbett I. Diplopia and ocular motility in orbital blow-out fractures: 10-year retrospective study. Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery 2015, 43(7), 1010-1016.
- Al-Musawi MJ, Durham J, Whitworth JM, Stone SJ, Valentine RA. In Vitro Effects of Topical Neuromodulatory Medication on Orofacial Tissue. In: IADR/AADR/CADR 93rd General Session and Exhibition 2015. 2015, Boston, MA, USA.
- Yule PL, Durham J, Playford H, Moufti MA, Steele J, Steen N, Wassell RW, Ohrbach R. OHIP-TMDs: a patient-reported outcome measure for temporomandibular disorders. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 2015, 43(5), 461-470.
- Durham J, Touger-Decker R, Nixdorf DR, Rigassio-Radler D, Moynihan P. Oro-facial pain and nutrition: a forgotten relationship?. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 2015, 42(1), 75-80.
- Currie CC, Stone SJ, Durham J. Pain and problems: a prospective cross-sectional study of the impact of dental emergencies. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 2015, 42(12), 883-889.
- Durham J, McDonald C, Hutchinson L, Newton JL. Painful Temporomandibular Disorders Are Common in Patients with Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome and Impact Significantly upon Quality of Life. Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache 2015, 29(2), 152-157.
- Reissmann DR, Poulopoulos G, Durham J. Patient perceived burden of implant placement compared to surgical tooth removal and apicectomy. Journal of Dentistry 2015, 43(12), 1456-1461.
- Ceusters W, Michelotti A, Raphael KG, Durham J, Ohrbach R. Perspectives on next steps in classification of oro-facial pain - part 1: role of ontology. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 2015, 42(12), 926-941.
- Durham J. Summary of Royal College of Surgeons' (England) clinical guidelines on management of temporomandibular disorders in primary care. British Dental Journal 2015, 218(6), 355-356.
- Durham J, Newton-John TRO, Zakrzewska JM. Temporomandibular disorders. BMJ 2015, 350(7999), h1154.
- Parsons CF, Breckons M, Durham J. Twitter: a viable medium for daily pain diaries in chronic orofacial pain?. British Dental Journal 2015, 219(2), 75-78.
- Shueb SS, Nixdorf DR, John MT, Alonso BF, Durham J. What is the impact of acute and chronic orofacial pain on quality of life?. Journal of Dentistry 2015, 43(10), 1203-1210.
- Stanford ND, Ip TB, Durham J. Adult orthodontic patients' views regarding dentofacial normality: A qualitative study. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 2014, 145(3), 287-295.
- Durham J, Breckons M, Araujo-Soares V, Exley C, Steele J, Vale L. Developing Effective and Efficient care pathways in chronic Pain: DEEP study protocol. BMC Oral Health 2014, 14, 6.
- Desai R, Durham J, Wassell RW, Preshaw PM. Does the mode of administration of the Oral Health Impact Profile-49 affect the outcome score?. Journal of Dentistry 2014, 42(1), 84-89.
- Durham J, Nixdorf DR. Healthcare pathway and biopsychosocial impact of persistent dentoalveolar pain disorder: a qualitative study. International Endodontic Journal 2014, 47(12), 1151-1159.
- Edwards JP, Peterson EJ, Durham J, Nixdorf DR. Methotrexate pharmacotherapy for implant-related temporomandibular joint pain: a case report. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology 2014, 118(2), e44-e47.
- Manfredini D, Al-Baghdadi M, Durham J, Araujo-Soares V, Robalino S, Errington L, Steele J. No significant differences between conservative interventions and surgical interventions for TMJ disc displacement without reduction. Evidence-Based Dentistry 2014, 153(3), 90-91.
- Al-Baghdadi M, Durham J, Steele J. Timing interventions in relation to temporomandibular joint closed lock duration: a systematic review of 'locking duration'. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 2014, 41(1), 24-58.
- Al-Bagdadi MKS, Durham J, Araujo-Soares V, Robalino S, Errington L, Steele J. TMJ disc displacement without reduction management: a systematic review. Journal of Dental Research 2014, 93(7), 37S-51S.
- Greenwood M, Beattie A, Green R, Durham J. Aspects of training in clinical medical sciences in dentistry (human disease): recent graduates’ perspectives from a UK dental school. European Journal of Dental Education 2013, 17(2), 114-121.
- Durham J, Fraser HM, McCracken GI, Stone KM, John MT, Preshaw PM. Impact of periodontitis on oral health-related quality of life. Journal of Dentistry 2013, 41(4), 370-376.
- Durham J. Oral surgery: part 3. Temporomandibular disorders. British Dental Journal 2013, 215(7), 331-337.
- Durham J, Exley CE, John MT, Nixdorf DR. Persistent Dentoalveolar Pain: The Patient’s Experience. Journal of Orofacial Pain 2013, 27(1), 6-13.
- Beecroft EV, Durham J, Thomson P. Retrospective examination of the healthcare 'journey' of chronic orofacial pain patients referred to oral and maxillofacial surgery. British Dental Journal 2013, 214(5), E12.
- Beattie A, Durham J, Harvey J, Steele J, McHanwell S. Does empathy change in first year dental students?. European Journal of Dental Education 2012, 16(1), e111-e116.
- Beattie A, Durham J, Harvey J, Steele J, McHanwell S. Does empathy change in first year dental students? European Journal of Dental Education. European Journal of Dental Education 2012, 16(1), E111- E116.
- Edwards JP, Durham J, Moore U, Goodson M, Thomson P. In-patient operating exposure for dental undergraduates: a valuable experience?. British Dental Journal 2012, 212(3), 135-139.
- Renton T, Durham J, Aggarwal VR. The classification and differential diagnosis of orofacial pain. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 2012, 12(5), 569-576.
- Stancliffe H, Little R, Keith D, Durham J. An evaluation of senior house officer training in oral and maxillofacial surgery. British Dental Journal 2011, 211(2), 75-80.
- Durham J, Steele JG, Wassell RW, Exley C, Meechan JG, Allen PF, Moufti AM. Creating a patient based condition-specific outcome measure for Temporomandibular Disorders (TMDs): Oral Health Impact Profile for TMDs (OHIP-TMDs). Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 2011, 38(12), 871-883.
- Macluskey M, Durham J, Balmer C, Bell A, Cowpe J, Dawson L, Freeman C, Hanson C, McDonagh A, Jones J, Millsopp L, Oliver R. Dental student suturing skills: a multicentre trial of a checklist-based assessment. European Journal of Dental Education 2011, 15(4), 244-249.
- Vernazza C, Durham J, Ellis J, Teasdale D, Cotterill S, Scott L, Thomason M, Drummond P, Moss J. Introduction of an e-portfolio in clinical dentistry: Staff and student views. European Journal of Dental Education 2011, 15(1), 36-41.
- Moore U, Durham J. Invited commentary: issues with assessing competence in undergraduate dental education. European Journal of Dental Education 2011, 15(1), 53-57.
- Durham J, Nohl F. Preparation of the mouth for prostheses. In: Moore, U.J, ed. Principles of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011, pp.175-200.
- Durham J, Steele J, Moufti MA, Wassell R, Robinson P, Exley C. Temporomandibular disorder patients' journey through care. Community Dentistry Oral Epidemiology 2011, 39(6), 532-541.
- Sierwald I, John MT, Durham J, Mirzakhanian C, Reissmann DR. Validation of the response format of the Oral Health Impact Profile. European Journal of Oral Sciences 2011, 119(6), 489-496.
- Durham J, Balmer C, Bell A, Cowan G, Cowpe J, Crean StJ, Dawson L, Evans A, Freeman C, Jones J, Macluskey M, McDonagh A, McHanwell S, Millsopp L, Myrddin L, Oliver R, Renton T, Sivarajasingam V, Still D, Taylor K, Thomson PJ. A generic consensus assessment of undergraduate competence in forceps exodontia in the United Kingdom. European Journal of Dental Education 2010, 14(4), 210-214.
- Durham J, Steele JG, Wassell RW, Exley C. Living with Uncertainty: Temporomandibular Disorders. Journal of Dental Research 2010, 89(8), 827-830.
- Peters S, Aggarwal V, Goldthorpe J, McElroy C, Elizabeth K, Durham J, Tickle M. Managing chronic oro-facial pain: A qualitative study of the experiences of patients, doctors and dentists. In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine: 11th International Congress of Behavioral Medicine. 2010, Washington, DC, USA: Springer.
- Durham J, Ohrbach R. Oral rehabilitation, disability and dentistry. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 2010, 37(6), 490-494.
- O'Dowd LK, Durham J, McCracken GI, Preshaw PM. Patients' experiences of the impact of periodontal disease. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 2010, 37(4), 334-339.
- Hasanain F, Durham J, Moufti A, Steen IN, Wassell RW. Adapting the diagnostic definitions of the RDC/TMD to routine clinical practice: A feasibility study. Journal of Dentistry 2009, 37(12), 955-962.
- Durham JA, Brettell S, Summerside C, McHanwell S. Evaluation of a virtual anatomy course for clinical undergraduates. European Journal of Dental Education 2009, 13(2), 100-109.
- Macluskey M, Durham JA. Oral Surgery Undergraduate Teaching and Experience in the United Kingdom: A National Survey. European Journal of Dental Education 2009, 13(1), 52-57.
- Moore UJ, Durham JA, Corbett IP, Thomson PJ. The influence of staffing and timetabing on achieving competence in surgical extractions. European Journal of Dental Education 2009, 13, 15-19.
- Polzer I, Durham J, Exley C, Mundt T, Biffar R, Jepson N. The Exercise of Choice in Prosthodontic Care. In: Pan European Federation of the International Association for Dental Research. 2008, London, UK: Journal of Dental Research: Sage.
- Anziani H, Durham JA, Moore UJ. The relationship between formative and summative assessment of undergraduates in oral surgery. European Journal of Dental Education 2008, 12(4), 233-238.
- Macluskey M, Durham J, Cowan G, Cowpe J, Evans A, Freeman C, Jephcott A, Jones J, Millsop L, Oliver R, Renton T, Ryan D, Sivarajasingham V, Still D, Taylor K, Thomson PJ. UK national curriculum for undergraduate oral surgery subgroup for teaching of the Association of British Academic Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. European Journal of Dental Education 2008, 12(1), 48-58.
- Durham JA, Moore UJ, Corbett IP, Thomson PJ. Assessing competency in dentoalveolar surgery: a 3 year study of cumulative experience in the undergraduate curriculum. European Journal of Dental Education 2007, 11(4), 200-207.
- Sharpe G, Durham JA, Preshaw PM. Attitudes regarding specialist referrals in periodontics. British Dental Journal 2007, 202(4), E11-.
- Durham JA, Exley C, Wassell R, Steele JG. 'Management is a black art' - professional ideologies with respect to temporomandibular disorders. British Dental Journal 2007, 202(11), -.
- McHanwell S, Durham JA, Brettell S. A quantitative evaluation of a virtual learning package in anatomy for final year dental students. In: Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 2006, Cardiff: Journal of Anatomy.
- Steele JG, Moufti MA, Wassell RW, Durham JA, Meechan JG. Does TMD affect quality of life in unexpected ways?. In: Journal of Dental Research (Special Issue C): Pan European Federation. 2006, London, UK: Sage Publications, Inc.
- Durham JA, Paterson AW, Pierse D, Adams JR, Clark M, Hierons R, Edwards K. Postoperative radiographs after open reduction and internal fixation of the mandible: Are they useful?. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 2006, 44(4), 279-282.
- Durham J, McHanwell S, Brettell S. “I Don’t Like Computers” – Evaluation of Virtual Learning in Anatomy. In: British Society for Dental Research (BSDR) Annual Scientific Meeting. 2005, Dundee, Scotland: International Association for Dental Research.
- Keith DJ, Durham J. Senior house officer training in oral and maxillofacial surgery: a national survey. British Dental Journal 2003, 195(1s), 23-28.