Professor Rudy Bilous
Dean of Clinical Affairs
- Email: email@example.com
- Telephone: +60 7 5553800
- Address: NUMed Malaysia
No1 Jalan Sarjana 1
Kota Ilmu, EduCity @Iskandar,
79200 Iskandar Puteri,
High School Cardiff High School for Boys
Guy's Hospital Medical School 1970 - 76
University of London BSc (Joint Hons Anatomy & Pharmacology) 2:1 1973
University of London MB BS 1976
University of London MD (Diabetes Mellitus) 1987
Royal College of Physicians London MRCP 1978 FRCP 1993
Prof Rudy Bilous graduated from Guy’s Hospital Medical School in 1976 and completed his training in Diabetes and Endocrinology in 1989. He studied for his MD at Guy’s Hospital and undertook a post doctoral fellowship at the University of Minnesota. His research topic was diabetic nephropathy. He was Honorary Consultant in Diabetes and Endocrinology and Internal Medicine at South Tees Trust in Middlesbrough UK from 1990 - 2015 and was appointed Professor of Clinical Medicine at the University of Newcastle in 2001. Since then his research interests have included diabetes and pregnancy, and clinical trials in diabetes and its complications. He is author or co-author of over 120 peer-reviewed articles and has co-edited the 4th edition of the Handbook of Diabetes as well as writing ‘Understanding Diabetes’ for people with the condition which has been translated into many different languages. He has held many senior roles in his specialty nationally and internationally, and recently chaired the Diabetes in Pregnancy Guideline Group for the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). He has been invited regularly to speak at national and international conferences including the American Diabetes Association, American Society of Nephrology, European Association for the Study of Diabetes and Diabetes UK. He gave the Ruth Osterby Lecture at the European Diabetic Nephropathy Study Group Meeting in 2009. He is currently Dean of Clinical Affairs at NUMed with overall responsibility for the delivery and assessment of the clinical curriculum. He is a keen teacher and was finalist in the Newcastle University Teacher of the Year Awards in 2015. He took up post in April 2016 and is very much looking forward to working at NUMed for the next few years.
I have been involved in clinical research for 35 years and have published extensively in the field of diabetes, specifically nephropathy. I have also been active in the field of diabetic pregnancy and have had a series of papers published in this area over the last 5 years. I have spoken at all of the major National and International Diabetes Conferences over the years and was invited to be the Expert in Diabetic Nephropathy at the American Diabetes Association Annual Meeting in 2014. I was awarded the Ruth Osterby Lecture of the European Diabetic Nephropathy Study Group meeting in 2009 and am regularly invited to speak both locally and further afield. I lead an active clinical trial programme at South Tees and have acted as National Co-ordinator and PI on many multi-national studies.
I was chairman of the Northern Regional Diabetes in Pregnancy group (NORDiP) which has led to a series of major publications in the field which I either initiated or provided the clinical input.
I was Clinical Director of the Durham and Tees Valley Local Research Network for four years during which time our research activity rose so that we rose from 21st to 18th in the National table despite being numerically the smallest LRN.
Basic Science Research
I was trained in morphometric analysis of renal biopsies during my post doctoral fellowship in the University of Minnesota from 1985 -7. On my return to the UK I recruited and trained a senior technician who later went on to obtain her PhD and now manages the Biomedical Electron Microscopy Unit in the University. Using grant funding from trials and collaboration with units in France, the USA and London we have contributed to several major publications (see list). Our expertise was a crucial part in the University application to the Wellcome Trust to upgrade the microsopes and secured a £800k grant. This work is continued by Dr Kath White.
Expertise in Guideline Writing
In 2007 I was invited by the National Kidney Foundation / Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF/KDOQI) to be the only diabetologist to serve on the guideline writing group for diabetic kidney disease. This involved several meetings over 2 years involving data extraction, evidence grading and guideline writing. This guidance was updated in 2010/12. Both documents have been widely adopted internationally. As a result of this work I was asked to join the group reviewing the generic chronic kidney disease guideline as the only diabetologist and this was published in 2013. I was appointed Chair of the Guideline Development Group for the revised Diabetes in Pregnancy guideline for NICE and this was published in Feb 2015. All of this work required multidisciplinary working, and for NICE, chairing a group including lay representatives. The feedback I received from the members was universally positive and my attention to everyone’s point of view and inclusivity was remarked upon.
Commitment to Medical Education and Training :
When I began teaching as a consultant in Middlesbrough we received students from both Newcastle and Dundee medical schools. This meant offering 2 completely distinct curricula but was extremely useful as Dundee at that time were starting to examine final year students by portfolio which I subsequently examined as External Examiner. I attended curriculum development committees for Dundee and was able to visit their Clinical Skills unit. I used this experience to help design and secure funding for the first Teaching Unit at what was then South Cleveland Hospital and this was officially opened by the Deans from Newcastle and Dundee schools in 1996. Subsequently as a result of the increased funding from the Regional Health Authority our much bigger, purpose built Teaching and Academic Centre was constructed and opened at James Cook University Hospital in 2001.
In 1995 Newcastle University formalised its regional base for clinical teaching and set up closer relationships with its main clinical teaching units in the region. I was the link at Middlesbrough General Hospital during this process and subsequently was appointed as the Undergraduate lead (later director) for the South Tees Trust following the merger with South Cleveland Hospital. With the national expansion of medical student numbers (resulting in an increase from 140 – 350 students per year in the North East), this process evolved into a Regional Clinical Medical School in which Acute Trusts, Mental Health Trusts and PCTs were combined into 4 Base Units.
South Tees was the lead organisation for the Teesside Base Unit comprising North Tees and Hartlepool and County Durham and Darlington Acute FTs, Tees Valley Mental Health FT and the Teesside and County Durham PCTs. I was the first Undergraduate Director appointed by the South Tees Trust and played a leading role in the development of the Teesside Base Unit; from 1998 as Clinical sub-Dean. This involved building links and forming working relationships with key individuals in our partner Trusts and Primary Care. I set up the Base Unit Executive to oversee implementation of the new curriculum and this now meets twice a year to review performance and results. We have organised several Base Unit away days to review and disseminate good teaching practice.
I also acted as link senior clinician between Durham University and the Base Unit when they started their pre clinical course in 2002, working closely with Prof John Hamilton setting up the clinical aspects of the programme. I was part of the visiting team to the Dept of Health to put forward our case for further student expansion. As a part of the medical school expansion, the student curriculum was completely reorganised and I was an active member of the oversight committee. I have been a member of the Board of Medical Studies from 1998 to 2015 as sub Dean, which met fortnightly (weekly during the curriculum development phase) and had an active role in reviewing and refining the course.
Throughout this time I have taught at both the pre-clinical and clinical level in my specialty of Endocrinology, as well as Clinical Skills and General Medicine. In response to the GMC scrutiny of assessment for UG medical students nationally, the medical school set up a working group to review current practice and make recommendations. I am a member of this group and now have responsibility for the final MB written MCQ paper. I act as one of the Medical School representatives on the Medical Schools Council Assessment Alliance which is tasked to develop a quality assured national question bank. This group meets twice yearly and has developed a common content of questions that can be used to compare student performance between schools. I have delivered many question writing workshops across the region in order to expand our pool of suitable questions.
In the postgraduate arena I have been secretary, then Chair of the SAC for Diabetes and Endocrinology in the period running up to the introduction of the Specialty Clinical exams. In these roles I visited training schemes around the country as part of the quality assurance process of the then JCHMT. I trained as an assessor for overseas applicants for the specialist register. My role as Chief of Service for the Academic Division for my Trust encompassed being Director of Medical Education with responsibility for both UG and PG education. I continued to act as Educational supervisor to 1 – 2 SpRs in Diabetes and Endocrinology, as well as Clinical Supervisor for Foundation, Core and Specialty training doctors (1 – 2 per year) until my retirement this year.
Training in Medical Education
I attended a summer school in Maastricht in 1994 where the principles of problem based learning were explained and we had the opportunity of developing teaching plans and sessions based upon our lectures. I was able to use these skills when teaching students on the Newcastle and Dundee curricula.
I have undertaken training courses on small group teaching, bedside teaching, Calgary-Cambridge communication skills, assessment and giving feedback. I am also trained in Fitness to Practice procedures for the University and in assessment of Mental Capacity for the Trust.I have acted as External Examiner for the University of Dundee for 4 years (1995-9) and External for Assessment for Exeter University (2013 - 15). I have been invited as External Examiner for the final MB for the University of Malaya from 2016.
- Levey AS, Bilous R, Shlipak MG. CKD and Diabetes: What Can We Learn From Their Similarities and Differences?. American Journal of Kidney Diseases 2016, 67(3), 360-363.
- Kröpelin TF, de Zeeuw D, Remuzzi G, Bilous R, Parving H-H, Heerspink HJL. Determining the Optimal Protocol for Measuring an Albuminuria Class Transition in Clinical Trials in Diabetic Kidney Disease. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 2016, 27(11), 3405-3412.
- Adam Z, Turley A, Mason JM, Kasim AS, Newby D, Mills N, Padfield G, Thompson L, Morley R, Hall JA, Wright RA, Muir DF, Sutton AGC, Swanson N, Carter J, Bilous R, Jones S, de Belder MA. The SSTARS (STeroids and Stents Against Re-Stenosis) Trial: Different stent alloys and the use of peri-procedural oral corticosteroids to prevent in-segment restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. International Journal of Cardiology 2016, 216, 1-8.
- Bilous R. Diagnosis of gestational diabetes, defining the net, refining the catch. Diabetologia 2015, 58(9), 1965-1968.
- Narva AS, Bilous RW. Laboratory Assessment of Diabetic Kidney Disease. Diabetes Spectrum 2015, 28(3), 162-166.
- Tennant PWG, Bilous RW, Prathapan S, Bell R. Risk and Recurrence of Serious Adverse Outcomes in the First and Second Pregnancies of Women With Preexisting Diabetes. Diabetes Care 2015, 38(4), 610-619.
- Bilous R. Step by step: diabetes in pregnancy. BMJ Publishing Group, 2015. Available at: http://learning.bmj.com/learning/module-intro/step-by-step-diabetes-pregnancy.html?moduleId=10055210.
- Tuttle KR, Bakris GL, Bilous RW, Chiang JL, de Boer IH, Goldstein-Fuchs J, Hirsch IB, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Narva AS, Navaneethan SD, Neumiller JJ, Patel UD, Ratner RE, Whaley-Connell AT, Molitch ME. Diabetic Kidney Disease: A Report From an ADA Consensus Conference. Diabetes Care 2014, 37(10), 2864-2883.
- Siddaramaiah NH, Tez DK, Linker NJ, Bilous M, Winship S, Marshall SM, Bilous RW. Effect of glycaemic and electrolyte variation on cardiac electrical activity during haemodialysis in people with insulin treated diabetes. In: 51st ERA-EDTA Congress. 2014, Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Oxford University Press.
- Tennant PWG, Glinianaia SV, Bilous RW, Rankin J, Bell R. Pre-existing diabetes, maternal glycated haemoglobin, and the risks of fetal and infant death: a population-based study. Diabetologia 2014, 57(2), 285-294.
- Tennant PWG, Glinianaia SV, Bilous RW, Rankin J, Bell R. Preexisting Diabetes, Maternal Glycated Hemoglobin, and the Risks for Fetal and Infant Death: A Population-Based Study. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey 2014, 69(6), 315-317.
- Levin A, Stevens PE, Bilous RW, Coresh J, deFrancisco ALM, deJong P, Griffith KE, Hemmelgarn BR, Iseki K, Lamb EJ, Levey AS, Riella MC, Shlipak MG, Wang H, White CT, Winearls CG. Kidney disease: improving global outcomes (KDIGO) CKD work group. KDIGO 2012 clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. Kidney International Supplements 2013, 3(1), 1-150.
- Hayes L, Bilous R, Bilous M, Brandon H, Crowder D, Emmerson C, Lewis-Barned N, Bell R. Universal screening to identify gestational diabetes: A multi-centre study in the North of England. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 2013, 100(3), e74-e77.
- Hayes L, Bilous R, Bilous M, Brandon H, Crowder D, Emmerson C, Lewis-Barned N, Bell R. Universal screening to identify gestational diabetes: a multi-centre study in the North of England. Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice 2013, 100(3), e74-e77.
- Glinianaia SV, Tennant PWG, Bilous RW, Rankin J, Bell R. HbA1c and birthweight in women with pre-conception type 1 and type 2 diabetes: a population-based cohort study. Diabetologia 2012, 55(12), 3193-3203.
- Evans M, Bain SC, Hogan S, Bilous RW, on behalf of the Collaborative Study Group participants. Irbesartan delays progression of nephropathy as measured by estimated glomerular filtration rate: post hoc analysis of the Irbesartan Diabetic Nephropathy Trial. Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation 2012, 27(6), 2255-2263.
- Bilous RW, Gonzalez-Campoy JM, Fradkin JE, Mauer M, Molitch ME, Narva AS, Nelson RG, Sharma K, Tuttle KR, Rocco MV, Berns JS, Wilt TJ, Ishani A, Rector TS, Slinin Y, Fitzgerald P, Carlyle M. KDOQI Clinical Practice Guideline for Diabetes and CKD: 2012 Update. American Journal of Kidney Diseases 2012, 60(5), 858-886.
- Bell R, Glinianaia S, Tennant PWG, Bilous R, Rankin J. Peri-conception hyperglycaemia and nepthropathy are associated with risk of congenital anomaly in women with pre-existing diabetes: a population-based cohort study. Diabetologia 2012, 55(4), 936-947.
- Porta M, Hainer JW, Jansson S-O, Malm A, Bilous R, Chaturvedi N, Fuller JH, Klein R, Orchard T, Parving H-H, Sjølie A-K, on behalf of the DIRECT Study Group. Exposure to candesartan during the first trimester of pregnancy in type 1 diabetes: experience from the placebo-controlled diabetic retinopathy candesartan trials. Diabetologia 2011, 54(6), 1298-1303.
- Sjølie AK, Klein R, Porta M, Orchard T, Fuller J, Parving HH, Bilous R, Aldington S, Chaturvedi N. Retinal microaneurysm count predicts progression and regression of diabetic retinopathy. Post-hoc results from the DIRECT Programme. Diabetic Medicine 2011, 28(3), 345-351.
- Bell R, Hayes L, Lewis-Barned N, Bilous M, Brandon H, Pearson S, Emmerson C, Adair S, Crowder D, Bilous R. Diagnosis, treatment and outcome of gestational diabetes;a multi-centre study in north-east England (NorGES). In: Diabetic Medicine: Abstracts of Diabetes UK Annual Professional Conference. 2010, Liverpool, UK: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
- Jones SC, Smith D, Nag S, Bilous MT, Winship S, Wood A, Bilous RW. Prevalence and nature of anaemia in a prospective, population-based sample of people with diabetes:Teesside anaemia in diabetes (TAD) study. Diabetic Medicine 2010, 27(6), 655 -659.
- Shields B, Hill A, Bilous M, Knight B, Hattersley AT, Bilous RW, Vaidya B. Cigarette Smoking during Pregnancy Is Associated with Alterations in Maternal and Fetal Thyroid Function. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2009, 94, 570-574.
- Bilous R, Chaturvedi N, Sjølie A, Fuller J, Klein R, Orchard T, Porta M, Parving H. Effect of Candesartan on Microalbuminuria and Albumin Excretion Rate in Diabetes: Three Randomized Trials. Annals of Internal Medicine 2009, 151(1), 11-20.
- Magee GM, Bilous RW, Cardwell CR, Hunter SJ, Kee F, Fogarty DG. Is hyperfiltration associated with the future risk of developing diabetic nephropathy? A meta-analysis. Diabetologia 2009, 52(4), 691-697.
- Chaturvedi N, Porta M, Klein R, Orchard T, Fuller J, Parving HH, Bilous R, Sjolie AK, for the DIRECT Programme Study Group. Effect of candesartan on prevention (DIRECT-Prevent 1) and progression (DIRECT-Protect 1) of retinopathy in type 1 diabetes: randomised, placebo-controlled trials. Lancet 2008, 372(9647), 1394-1402.
- Sjolie AK, Klein R, Porta M, Orchard T, Fuller J, Parving HH, Bilous R, Chaturvedi N, for the DIRECT Programme Study Group. Effect of candesartan on progression and regression of retinopathy in type 2 diabetes (DIRECT-Protect 2): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2008, 372(9647), 1385-1393.
- Ku CH, White KE, Dei Cas A, Hayward A, Webster Z, Bilous RW, Marshall SM, Viberti G, Gnudi L. Inducible overexpression of sFlt-1 in podocytes ameliorates glomerulopathy in diabetic mice. Diabetes 2008, 57(10), 2824-2833.
- Bilous R. Microvascular disease: What does the UKPDS tell us about diabetic nephropathy?. Diabetic Medicine 2008, 25(s2), 25-29.
- White KE, Marshall SM, Bilous RW. Prevalence of atubular glomeruli in type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 2008, 23(11), 3539-3545.
- Bilous R. Renin angiotensin system (RAS) blockade and diabetic microvascular complications in the eye and kidney. Primary Care Diabetes 2008, 2(4), 201-202.
- Vaidya B, Anthony S, Bilous M, Shields B, Drury J, Hutchison S, Bilous R. Detection of thyroid dysfunction in early pregnancy : universal screening or targeted high-risk case finding?. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2007, 92(1), 203-207.
- Bilous R. Diabetic Medicine: Editorial. Diabetic Medicine 2007, 24(2), 107-109.
- Chaturvedi N, Bilous R, Hardy R, Remuzzi G, Ruggenenti P, Viberti GC. Misleading meta-analysis: A need to look beyond the headlines. Diabetic Medicine 2007, 24(6), 587-591.
- Bilous RW. Can ASCOT change the form of antihypertensive therapy?. Diabetic Medicine 2006, 23(1), 13-14.
- New JP, O'Donoghue DJ, Middleton RJ, Rudenski A, Dasgupta I, Bilous RW, Marshall SM. Time to move from serum creatinine to eGFR. Diabetic Medicine 2006, 23(10), 1047-1049.
- Jones SC, Marshall SM, Bilous RW. Diabetic Nephropathy. In: Defronzo, R.A., Ferrannini, E., Keen, H., Zimmet, P, ed. International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus. London, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 2004, pp.1219-1252.
- White KE, Bilous RW. Estimation of podocyte number: A comparison of methods. Kidney International 2004, 66(2), 663-667.
- Bilous RW. Evolution World-wide of renal replacement therapy in diabetes. In: Mogensen, C.E, ed. Kidney and Hypertension in Diabetes Mellitus. London, UK: Taylor & Francis, 2004, pp.687-702.
- Bilous R, Jones S. Summary of the management of the patient with diabetic nephropathy: mild to moderate renal involvement. In: Boner, G., Cooper, M, ed. Management of diabetic nephropathy. London, UK: Martin Dunitz, 2003, pp.183-188.
- Bilous Rudy W. Understanding Diabetes. Poole, UK: Family Doctor Publications, 1995.
- VIBERTI GC, HOME PD, BILOUS RW, ALBERTI KGMM, DALTON N, KEEN H, PICKUP JC. METABOLIC EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE IN INSULIN-DEPENDENT DIABETICS CONTROLLED BY CONTINUOUS SUBCUTANEOUS INSULIN INFUSION OR CONVENTIONAL INJECTION THERAPY. ACTA ENDOCRINOLOGICA 1984, 105(4), 515-520.
- PICKUP JC, VIBERTI GC, BILOUS RW, KEEN H, ALBERTI KGMM, HOME PD, BINDER C. SAFETY OF CONTINUOUS SUBCUTANEOUS INSULIN INFUSION - METABOLIC DETERIORATION AND GLYCEMIC AUTO-REGULATION AFTER DELIBERATE CESSATION OF INFUSION. DIABETOLOGIA 1982, 22(3), 175-179.
- PICKUP JC, HOME PD, BILOUS RW, KEEN H, ALBERTI KGMM. MANAGEMENT OF SEVERELY BRITTLE DIABETES BY CONTINUOUS SUBCUTANEOUS AND INTRAMUSCULAR INSULIN INFUSIONS - EVIDENCE FOR A DEFECT IN SUBCUTANEOUS INSULIN ABSORPTION. BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL 1981, 282(6261), 347-350.
- Jacklin PB, Maresh MJA, Patterson CC, Stanley KP, Dornhorst A, Burman-Roy S, Bilous RW. A cost-effectiveness comparison of the NICE 2015 and WHO 2013 diagnostic criteria for women with gestational diabetes with and without risk factors. BMJ Open 2017, 7(8), e016621.
- Law GR, Gilthorpe MS, Secher AL, Temple R, Bilous R, Mathiesen ER, Murphy HR, Scott ER. Translating HbA1c measurements into estimated average glucose values in pregnant women with diabetes. Diabetologia 2017, 60(4), 618–624.
- Lindhardt M, Persson F, Zurbig P, Stalmach A, Mischak H, De Zeeuw D, Lambers Heerspink H, Klein R, Orchard T, Porta M, Fuller J, Bilous R, Chaturvedi N, Parving H-H, Rossing P. Urinary proteomics predict onset of microalbuminuria in normoalbuminuric type 2 diabetic patients, a sub-study of the DIRECT-Protect 2 study. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 2017, 32(11), 1866-1873.
- Bilous R. Comorbidities and complications: Diabetic nephropathy: Diagnosis, screening and management. Diabetes and Primary Care 2016, 18(1), 38-47.
- Feig DS, Asztalos E, Corcoy R, De Leiva A, Donovan L, Hod M, Jovanovic L, Keely E, Kollman C, McManus R, Murphy K, Ruedy K, Sanchez JJ, Tomlinson G, Murphy HR, Feig D, Cleave B, Donat D, Gandhi S, Strom M, Chico AI, Jose Martinez M, Sanchez M, Tundidor D, Amiel S, Hunt K, Green L, Rogers H, Rossi B, Stodhart B, Bonomo M, Bertuzzi F, Corica GD, Fazio S, Giro R, Mion E, Moletta A, Pintaudi B, Sorrentino R, Booth J, McInnes N, Nykamp A, Otto R, Smith A, Stanton I, Tazzeo T, Oldford C, Young C, Gougeon C, Houlden R, Breen A, Castorino K, Sansum W, Keely E, Clark H, Gaudet L, Karovitch A, Malcolm J, Lowe J, Rogowsky A, Kudirka A, Watson M, Morris D, Farnworth F, Fowler D, Mitchell S, Rosier J, Murphy H, Byrne C, Davenport K, Grisoni J, Mulrennan S, Neoh S, O'Sullivan E, Simmons D, Stewart Z, Templin H, Murphy H, Turner J, Canciani G, Hewapathirana N, Jones L, Piper L, Temple R, Wallace T, Maitland R, Banerjee A, Briley A, Brackenridge A, Gilby P, Gill C, Reid A, Singh C, White S, Wolfs M, Scott E, Endersby D, Maresh M, Kearney G, Morris J, Quinn S, Rao-Balakrishna P, MacDougall M, Bilous R, Bilous M, Mahadissu S, Menini D, Mukhtar R, Holt R, Forbes J, Martin N, Walbridge F, Mansell P, Babington G, Bugg G, Gazis T, Jones N, Spick D, Heller S, Bustani R, Gordon V, Madhuvrata P, Hudson S, Nisbet C, Novodvorsky P, Solomon A, Towse K, Philip S, Booth A, Cadzow A, Chlost M, Murray L, Norris K, Shearer K, Dover A, Dougherty F, Johnston S, Little J, McKay L, Lindsay R, Carty D, Crawford I, Mackenzie F, McSorley T, Dunne F, Brosnan E, Conway S, Byrnes MC, Duane L, Duffy N, Egan A, Gaffney G, Higgins G, Kelly C, Kirwan C, Liew A, Normoyle K, Roarty C, Waldron M, Weisnagel J, Allen C, D'Amours M, Dube M-C, Julien V-E, Godbout A, Daigle S, Ransom T, Coolen J, Baxendale D, Newstead-Angel J, Soloman AL, Gorton K, Jackson M, Miller K, Taylor J, Mergler S, Qureshi A, Rodriguez A, Mangoff K. CONCEPTT: Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Women with Type 1 Diabetes in Pregnancy Trial: A multi-center, multi-national, randomized controlled trial - Study protocol. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2016, 16(1), 167.
- Bilous R. The VA NEPHRON-D study in diabetic nephropathy: The experiment was a success, but the patient got sicker. Diabetes and Primary Care 2014, 16(2), 64-65.