Nearly 100 filmmakers from Spain to Slovenia have found the tale of the fictional Spanish cigarette factory worker absolutely irresistible.
On the big screen, Carmen has been portrayed as the first ever film ‘vamp’, a black bisexual, a Tom and Jerry cartoon character, and has appeared in country and western guise and played for laughs with Charlie Chaplin.
Actresses as diverse as Hollywood beauty Rita Hayworth, porn star Uta Levka and Beyoncé Knowles, a singer with the chart-topping band Destiny’s Child have played her on the big screen. Recent reports even suggest American singer and actress Jennifer Lopez is set to play her in a new film.
Every decade of the 20th Century has spawned several big screen versions of the Carmen story - now the most filmed opera to date - from all over the world. Even Adolf Hitler commissioned his own, Fascist version of the tale, displaying huge irony considering the Nazi’s treatment of Gypsies during the Second World War.
The Newcastle University experts have proved the existence of over 70 Carmen films – including nearly 40 silent films made before 1931. All are based on the tale initially described in the novella by French author Prosper Mérimée but made famous in 1875 by Bizet’s tragic opera of the same name, Carmen. The research shows that Carmen is the most filmed opera - ever.
Researcher Ann Davies, of Newcastle University’s Centre for Research into Film and Media (CRIFAM), travelled the world in her quest to unearth the Carmen films. She said:
“We have drawn together the most extensive and comprehensive list to date of films of the Carmen story from 1899 to the present day.
“This is proof that the Carmen story does not date, and that it is still hugely relevant to the present day. It deals with still familiar situations and emotions – those of love, jealousy, attitudes to women and the male fantasy.”
The project has gathered together information not only on the classic film Carmens, such as the well-known 1983 film by Spanish film director Carlos Saura, but also some of the more obscure releases such as Carmen of the North (1920) a Dutch version, which is silent and set against a snowy backdrop and The Campus Carmen (1928), which stars Carol Lombard, wife of Clark Gable, as Don Jose, in a mainly female cast.
Bizet’s opera Carmen caused a stir when it first opened in Paris, the middle-class audience shocked by the tale of the captivating Spanish gypsy girl who entrances soldier Don Jose, takes him as her lover, then drops him for more exciting prey, the bullfighter Escamillo. Don Jose returns from a trip home to find Carmen watching Escamillo’s success in the bull ring, and, ridden with jealousy, fatally stabs her.
The opera closed after only 48 performances, and Bizet died shortly after. A year after Bizet’s death, however, the piece was revived with a series of triumphant performances in Vienna. Today Carmen is recognised as Bizet’s masterpiece, and a classic.
Filmmakers using the Carmen story have not always kept to the original narrative, but the basic themes of the plot are still present.
Dr Davies added: “The story is very audio visual, with music, dancing, and strong, highly dramatic characters, and thus lends itself extremely well to the screen. Carmen herself presents a very strong image of the wild and captivating gypsy girl, who wants to hold on to her freedom at any cost. It seems that, despite the large number of Carmen films already made, people cannot resist attempting new interpretations.”
“Although Carmen as a subject for film has been studied before, the work that Newcastle University is undertaking means that we are the the first to gather together information and critique on the phenomenon in any systematic and comprehensive way."
Film makers in this century continue to be seduced by the Carmen story , with two films released in 2001. MTV produced Carmen: a Hip Hopera, with Beyoncé Knowles, a singer with the band Destiny’s Child in the lead role. The film mixes hip hop with Bizet’s tunes, and appears to follow the Bizet/Merimee storyline. A Senegalese release, Karmen Gei, featured a black, bisexual Carmen and provoked riots by a religious sect, the Mouride. There are also plans for more Carmen films. Spanish film director, Vicente Aranda, is filming his version and some newspapers have said singer and actress Jennifer Lopez will star in and produce an update version of Carmen, with a script reportedly written by Craig Pearce, Baz Luhrmann’s screenwriting partner on Moulin Rouge, Romeo and Juliet and Strictly Ballroom.
Newcastle University’s Centre for Research into Film and Media (CRIFAM) received a £126,000 grant from the Arts and Humanities Research Board for the three-year project to compile the definitive list of Carmen films. Not all the films survive, and some are kept in archives all over the world, but university researchers have compiled searchable web database listing and containing information about the films.
CONTACT: Dr Ann Davies Tel + 44 191 208 7489. Email: email@example.com.
PHOTOGRAPHS: A selection of film stills – some are in copyright and others are out of copyright, are available from the university press office in electronic format.
Notes to editors:
1. Other researchers who have worked on the project are Prof. Phil Powrie Department of French, Prof. Chris Perriam Spanish}, and Mr. Bruce Babington English Literary and Linguistic Studies.
2. The Arts and Humanities Research Board (AHRB) funds postgraduate and advanced research within the UK's higher education institutions. All AHRB awards are made on the basis of academic excellence. The AHRB is not responsible for the views or research outcomes expressed by its award holders
3. Useful web pages:
* Carmen project: www.ncl.ac.uk/crif/carmen.htm
Issued by Newcastle University Press Office: contact Claire Jordan, tel: 0191 208 6067, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
NB: For broadcasters, the University has a fully-equipped radio studio with ISDN line and is a short distance from BBC and independent TV studios.
published on: 26th June 2002