School of Engineering


4M: Measurement, Modelling, Mapping and Management: An evidence based methodology for understanding and shrinking the urban carbon footprint

The Carbon Footprint (CF) offers a framework to represent carbon sources and sinks. The relative magnitude of trade-offs of carbon management policies and practices can then be compared.

Project leaders: Professor Margaret Bell, Dr Anil Namdeo
Sponsors: UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)
Research partners: Loughborough University Leicester, DeMontfort University, University of Sheffield, University of Exeter, University of Leeds
Industrial partners: DEFRA, English Nature, Humber to Pennines, Groundwork Leicester and Leicestershire, JMP Consulting, KTL (Finnish National Public Health), Leicester City Council, London Borough of Merton, Polytechnic University of Turin, RSA, Stuttgart University of Applied Sciences, Swedish Meteorological & Hydrology Institute, The Lean Economy Connection, The National Energy Foundation, Yorkshire Wildlife Trust
Start/end dates: 2008-2012

Project details

Within the 4M project, through the calculation of the carbon footprint of the City of Leicester, UK, it has become possible to study:

  • emissions of domestic and non-domestic buildings
  • emissions and pollution from vehicles
  • biological sequestration of carbon in urban soils

Newcastle University has been involved with the footprinting of carbon emissions from transport, incorporating information extracted from extensive travel surveys across cohorts of individual residences, workplaces and schools across Leicester.


Book chapter:

Lomas KJ, Bell MC, Firth SK, Gaston KJ, Goodman P, Leake JR, Namdeo A, Rylatt M, Allinson D, Davies ZG, Edmondson JL, Galatioto F, Brake JA, Guo L, Fill G, Irvine KN, Taylor SC, Tiwary A (2010) The carbon footprint of UK Cities: 4M: measurement, modelling, mapping and measurement. ISOCARP Review 06, Int. Soc. of City and Regional Planners, p168 - 191, (2010), ISBN: 978-0-415-61715-4 (Routledge, Main Distributor); ISBN: 978-94-90354-07-7 (ISOCARP).

Conference papers:

Bell M.C, Galatioto F., Hill G. and Namdeo A. (2009) Modelling environmental impacts of traffic using a new generation of pervasive sensors. 16th ITS World Congress 2009, Stockholm, 21-25 September 2009.

Academic staff