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2. Mitchell, L.C. 'Letter-writing instruction manuals in Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century England- in: Letter-Writing Manuals and Instruction from Antiquity to the Present, Ed. by C. Poster and L.C. Mitchell, Historical and Bibliographic Studies (Columbia: U of South Carolina P, 2007) pp.178-199.

3. Bath Postal Museum. History of the Post,
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4. Mackenzie, E. A descriptive and historical account of the town and county of Newcastle upon Tyne: including the borough of Gateshead (Newcastle upon Tyne: Mackenzie and Dent, 1827) p.513.

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7. Dictionary of Nineteenth-Century Journalism in Great Britain and Ireland, Gen. eds. L. Brake & M. Demoor (Ghent: Academia P; the British Library, 2009)

8. Duncan, W. Life of Joseph Cowen (M.P. for Newcastle, 1874-86) with letters, extracts from his speeches, and verbatim report of his last speech, Introd. by R. Welford (London; Newcastle-on-Tyne: Walter Scott Publishing, 1904) pp.39-50.

9. Allen, J. '“Knowledge is Power”: Community politics, associational life and the press,' Joseph Cowen and Popular Radicalism on Tyneside, 1829-1900 (Monmouth: Merlin P, 2007) pp.51-78.

10. Ibid, p.45.

11. Fynes, R. The miners of Northumberland and Durham. A history of their social and political progress (Blyth: John Robinson, Jun., 1873) pp.269-277.

12. Maelh, W.H., Jr. 'The Northeastern miners' struggle for the franchise, 1872-74,' International Review of Social History, Vol. 20, issue 2 (1975) pp.198-219.

13. Duncan, p.79.

14. Ibid, p 85.

15. Ibid, p.116.

16. Ibid, pp.148-151.

17. Allen, p.6.

18. Ibid, p.11.

19. Matthew, H.C.G. 'Gladstone, William Ewart (1809-1898),' Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford: Oxford UP, 2004; online ed. May 2011) (accessed 07/07/2011)

20. 'Election Intelligence' in: The Times, 6th September 1889, p.5.

21. Stead, W.T. The Review of Reviews, Vol. V, April 1892, pp. 345-362, (accessed 11/07/2011)

22. Bagshot, W. 'Mr. Gladstone's Oratory' in: The New York Times, 17 July 1881.

23. Matthew, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, p.24.

24. Lynch, M.J. 'Was Gladstone a Tractarian? Gladstone and the Oxford Movement, 1833-45,' in: Journal of Religious History 8 (1975) pp.364-398 and Matthew, H.C.G. 'Gladstone, Evangelicalism and “The Engagement”,' in: Garnett, J. and Matthew, H.C.G. (eds.) Revival and Religion since 1700, Essays for John Walsh (London: Hambledon Continuum, 1993) pp.111-126.

25. Matthew, H.C.G. 'William Ewart Gladstone (1809-1898): his work with “fallen women”,' The Victorian Web: literature, history, & culture in the age of Victoria, (accessed 08/07/2011)

26. Matthew, H.C.G. 'Strawberries at bedtime: after 25 years, Professor Colin Matthew has finished editing the Gladstone diaries. He reflects on this very eminent Victorian,' in: 'The Sunday Review Page,'The Independent, 2 October 1994, p.44.

27. Matthew, 'Fallen women'.

28. Matthew, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, p.15.

29. Matthew, H.C.G. 'The Legacy of Gladstone,' in: Liberal Democrat History Group Newsletter Seven, June 1995, pp.1-4.

30. Matthew, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, p.10.

31. Ibid, p.14.

32. Ibid, p.30.

33. Ibid, p.32.

34. Bloy, M. 'Gladstone and Ireland 1880-1886,' A Web of English History, (accessed 26/07/2011)

35. Shattock, J. The Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature, Vol. 4 1800-1900 (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2000) pp.1455-1465.

36. Eliot, S. 'Besant, Sir Walter (1836-1901),' Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford: Oxford UP, 2004; online ed. Jan 2008) (accessed 01/07/2011) p.2.

37. Ibid, p.3.

38. Ibid, p.2.

39. Bennett, B.T. 'Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft (1797-1851),' Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford: Oxford UP, 2004) (accessed 30/07/2011) p.2.

40. Shelley, M. Introduction. Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus, Revised, corrected, and illustrated with a new introduction by the author (London: Bentley, 1839) p.v.

41. Mellor, A.K. Mary Shelley: Her Life, Her Fiction, Her Monsters (New York: Routledge, [1989]) p.23.

42. Luke, H.J. Introduction in: Shelley, M. The Last Man, edited with an introduction by Hugh J. Luke Jnr. (Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, [1965])

43. Shelley, M. Letter to Leigh Hunt (9 February 1824) quoted in: Bennett, B.T. Introduction, Selected Letters of Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (Baltimore; London: Johns Hopkins UP, 1995) p.xii.

44. Godwin, W. quoted in: Bennett, p.6.

45. Williams, J. Mary Shelley: A literary Life, Literary Lives Series (New York: St. Martin's P, 1999) pp.162-163.


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