Dr Matthew Leach
- Email: email@example.com
- Telephone: +44 (0) 191 208 5494
- Fax: +44 (0) 191 208 7811
- Personal Website: www.researchgate.net/profile/Matthew_Leach2/
- Address: Agriculture
School of Natural and Environmental Sciences
Newcastle upon Tyne
UK, NE1 7RU
I undertook a degree in Zoology at the University of Southampton in 1992, which lead to an MSc in Applied Animal Behaviour & Welfare at the the University of Edinburgh in 1995. During this time I developed an interest in animal welfare and behaviour. This initially lead me into research investigating the welfare of captive elephants in the UK. Subsequently, I undertook a PhD in Laboratory Animal Welfare at the University of Birmingham which included research into euthanasia, husbandry and housing of laboratory animals. These research topics have formed the basis of my research career since. At the University of Bristol I undertook projects to develop a welfare benchmarking scheme for laboratory mice, investigate the standard of mouse welfare in the UK and to identify the most critical welfare issues affecting wildlife around the world. I continue to actively participate in these research areas. Since joining Newcastle University I have been involved in further research improving the welfare of laboratory and companion animal species.
Roles and Responsibilities
My research encompasses various aspects of laboratory and companion animal welfare. I lecture on various aspects of animal welfare, companion animal science and project design and statistics. I am also responsible for research project design and statistics, supervision of undergraduate, post-graduate and post-doctoral students. I also provide general guidance and training in research methodology and statistics training. I assist other members of the research group with their research as necessary as well as conducting my own research. I am also involved in preparing grant submissions, drafting research publications, editing and reviewing publications.
- BSc (Hons) in Zoology from the University of Southampton
- MSc in Applied Animal Behaviour & Welfare from the University of Edinburgh
- PhD in Laboratory Animal Welfare from the University of Birmingham
- Post-doctoral Research Associate at the University of Birmingham (2002)
- Post-doctoral Research Associate at the University of Bristol (2002 to 2005)
- Post-doctoral Research Associate at the
Newcastle University (2005 to 2012)
- Consensus group on Carbon Dioxide Euthanasia of Laboratory Animals
- Animal Welfare Science, Ethics & Law Veterinary Association (AWSELVA)
- Editorial board member for 'Laboratory Animals' journal
- Ethics committee for the Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour (ASAB)
Honours and Awards:
- Significant contribution to the FELASA Animal Welfare Award 2007
- Significant contribution to the Charles River Animal Welfare Prize 2012
- Some German
- Keeping dogs & cats
- Dog sledding
- Mountain Biking
For a full list of my publications please see my Google Scholar Profile
Developing methods for assessing and alleviating post-procedure pain and distress in a range of animal species, including rodents, rabbits, guinea pigs, dogs, cats, horses, pigs, sheep and primates. Identifying and implementing novel methods of assessing welfare, pain and distress in animals, particularly laboratory and companion animal species. Identifying, testing and implementing refinements to improve the welfare of a range animal species. The development of educational materials to assist those who carry out procedures on animals in both veterinary practice and in animal-based research to refine the procedures that they carry out improving welfare standards.
Developing and implementing welfare benchmarking schemes for laboratory, pet and wild animals. The assessment of behaviour and welfare of a wide range of captive and wild animals. The use of experimental models and statistical analysis in animal-based research.
I am currently hold a three year NC3Rs (National Centre for the 3Rs) funded research project to further develop and validate the use of facial expressions for the assessment of pain in rodents, rabbits and macaques. This initially involves further validating the existing assessment schemes in rodents to assess post-procedural pain. Following on from this I plan to develop and validate similar systems for assessing post-procedural pain in rabbits and rhesus macaques. Alongside of this research project I am involved in development of effective means of assessing pain and distress in other species including; dogs, horses, pigs and sheep.
I hope to undertake further projects to develop more effective methods of assessing pain and distress in a wide range of laboratory, farm and companion animal species. I am currently collaborating on a number of research applications on new methods of potentially assessing pain and distress.
Outside of my research work, I am responsible for research project design and statistics, supervision of undergraduate, post-graduate and post-doctoral students. I also provide general guidance and training in research methodology and statistics training. I assist other members of the research group with their research as necessary as well as conducting my own research. I am also involved in preparing grant submissions, drafting research publications, editing and reviewing publications of other researchers in the group.
I routinely supervise a number of postgraduate students from this and other universities. I am not currently supervising any PhD students.
- Invited speaker at large number domestic and international academic, veterinary and pharmaceutical industry conferences and meetings.
- Invited speaker for the Jeanne Marchig International Centre for Animal Welfare Education
- Module co-ordinator on the MSc in Applied Animal Behaviour & Welfare at the University of Edinburgh
- Significant contribution to the FELASA Animal Welfare Award 2007
- External PhD examiner (University of Bristol 2007)
- Internal PhD examiner (Newcastle University (2012)
- External MPhil examiner (Manchester University 2012)
Laboratory animal welfare, Companion animal welfare, Pain, Distress, Behaviour, Statistical analysis, Experimental design, Welfare benchmarking, Wildlife welfare
- Companion Animal Science at Newcastle University (ACE 2035: Animal Science)
- Zoo Animal Science and Management at Newcastle University (ACE 2057: Animal Science)
- Experimental Design on Pharmacological Techniques Module at Newcastle University (PED 3001: Pharmacology).
- Ethics of Animal Use at Newcastle University (Bio3015: Biology).
- Module co-ordinator on the MSc in Applied Animal Behaviour & Welfare at Newcastle University (Animal Welfare Science [ACE 8076], Neural & Endocrine Mediation of Behaviour [ACE8077], Abnormal Animal Behaviour [ACE 8084], Experimental Design & Statistics [ACE8102]).
- Module co-ordinator on the MSc in Applied Animal Behaviour & Welfare at the University of Edinburgh (Animal Welfare Applications).
- Module co-ordinator on the MSc in International Animal Welfare, Ethics and Law at the University of Edinburgh (Animal welfare, testing and education).
- Lecturer Experimental design CBC’s Home Office Module 5 course
- Seminars as part of CBC 3 day workshop on animal pain and distress.
- Miller AL, Flecknell PA, Leach MC, Roughan JV. A comparison of a manual and an automated behavioural analysis method for assessing post-operative pain in mice. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 2011, 131(3-4), 138-144.
- Flecknell P, Leach M, Bateson M. Affective state and quality of life in mice. Pain 2011, 152(5), 963-964.
- Leach MC, Coulter CA, Richardson CA, Flecknell PA. Are We Looking in the Wrong Place? Implications for Behavioural-Based Pain Assessment in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculi) and Beyond?. PLoS One 2011, 6(3), e13347.
- Farnworth MJ, Walker JK, Schweizer KA, Chuang C-L, Guild S-J, Barrett CJ, Leach MC, Waran NK. Potential behavioural indicators of post-operative pain in male laboratory rabbits following abdominal surgery. Animal Welfare 2011, 20(2), 225-237.
- Coulter CA, Flecknell PA, Leach MC, Richardson CA. Reported analgesic administration to rabbits undergoing experimental surgical procedures. BMC Veterinary Research 2011, 7, 12.
- Leach MC, Bailey HE, Dickinson AL, Roughan JV, Flecknell PA. A preliminary investigation into the practicality of use and duration of action of slow-release preparations of morphine and hydromorphone in laboratory rats. Laboratory Animals 2010, 44(1), 59-65.
- ScottodiPerrotolo M, Miller AL, Leach MC, Flecknell PA. Mesure de la fiabilité et de la precision des expressions facials pour évaluer la douler chez la souris. STAL 2010, 36(4), 49-58.
- Leach MC, Allweiler S, Richardson C, Roughan JV, Narbe R, Flecknell PA. Behavioural effects of ovariohysterectomy and oral administration of meloxicam in laboratory housed rabbits. Research in Veterinary Science 2009, 87(2), 336-347.
- Dickinson AL, Leach MC, Flecknell PA. Influence of early neonatal experience on nociceptive responses and analgesic effects in rats. Laboratory Animals 2009, 43(1), 11-16.
- Leach MC, Main DCJ. An assessment of laboratory mouse welfare in UK animal units. Animal Welfare 2008, 17(2), 171-187.
- Leach MC, Thornton PD, Main DCJ. Identification of appropriate measures for the assessment of laboratory mouse welfare. Animal Welfare 2008, 17(2), 161-170.
- Richardson CA, Niel LE, Leach MC, Flecknell PA. Evaluation of the efficacy of a novel electronic pain assessment device, the Pain Gauge®, for measuring postoperative pain in rats. Laboratory Animals 2007, 41(1), 46-54.
- Dennison T, Leach MC. Animals, reseach, ethics and law. In: Pullen, S, ed. Ethics, Animal Law and the Veterinary Nurse. Oxford: Elsevier, 2006, pp.103-116.
- Leach MC, Thornton PD, Main DCJ. Development of a welfare-benchmarking scheme for laboratory mice. In: 9th FELASA Symposium on Internationalisation and harmonisation of laboratory animal care and use issues. 2006, Nantes, France: Laboratory Animals Ltd.
- Hawkins P, Playle L, Golledge H, Leach M, Banzett R, Coenen A, Cooper J, Danneman P, Flecknell P, Kirkden R, Niel L, Raj M. Newcastle Consensus Meeting on Carbon Dioxide Euthanasia of Laboratory Animals. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: NC3Rs, 2006.
- Raj ABM, Leach MC, Morton DB. Carbon dioxide for euthanasia of laboratory animals. Comparative Medicine 2004, 54(5), 470-471.
- Leach MC, Morton DB. How humane is induction with common agents of anaesthesia an euthanasia in laboratory rodents?. ANZCCART Newsletter 2004, 17, 1-4.
- Leach MC, Bowell VA, Allan TF, Morton DB. Measurement of aversion to determine humane methods of anaesthesia and euthanasia. Animal Welfare 2004, 13(s1), 77-86.
- Leach MC, Bowell VA, Allan TF, Morton DB. Aversion to gaseous anesthesia in rats and mice. Comparative Medicine 2002, 52(6), 498.
- Leach MC, Bowell VA, Allan TF, Morton DB. Aversion to gaseous euthanasia agents in rats and mice. Comparative Medicine 2002, 52(6), 572.
- Leach MC, Bowell VA, Allan TF, Morton DB. Aversion to gaseous euthanasia agents in rats and mice. Comparative Medicine 2002, 52(3), 249-257.
- Leach MC, Bowell VA, Allan TF, Morton DB. Degrees of aversion shown by rats and mice to different concentrations of inhalational anaesthetics. Veterinary Record 2002, 150(26), 808-815.
- Morton DB, Ambrose N, Leach MC, Kelly J, Poirier G. Adverse effects - recognition and assessment, and humane endpoints. In: Balls M, van Zeller AM, Halder ME, ed. Progress in the reduction, refinement and replacement of animal experimentation: proceedings of the 3rd World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences, held in Bologna, Italy, from 29 August to 2 September 1999. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2000, pp.1083-1093.
- Leach MC, Ambrose N, Morton DB. The Development of a Novel Form of Mouse Cage Enrichment. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 2000, 3(2), 81-91.
- Leach MC, Waran N, Young RJ. Olfactory enrichment for asian elephants: Is it as good as it smells?. International Zoo News 1998, 45, 285-291.
- Leach MC. Animal Training – A controversial form of enrichment. Ratel 1997, 25, 49-58.
- Leach MC. Practical environmental enrichment for elephants. In: Field D, Young RJ, ed. Zoo Enrichment Guidelines. Association of British Wild Animal Keepers, 1997.
- Thomas AA, Leach MC, Flecknell PA. An alternative method of endotracheal intubation of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Laboratory Animals 2012, 46(1), 71-76.
- Keating SCJ, Thomas AA, Flecknell PA, Leach MC. Evaluation of EMLA Cream for Preventing Pain during Tattooing of Rabbits: Changes in Physiological, Behavioural and Facial Expression Responses. PLoS One 2012, 7(9), e44437.
- Leach MC, Klaus K, Miller AL, Scotto di Perrotolo M, Sotocinal SG, Flecknell PA. The Assessment of Post-Vasectomy Pain in Mice using Behaviour and the Mouse Grimace Scale. PloS One 2012, 7(4), e35656.
- Di Giminiani P, Sandercock DA, Malcolm EL, Leach MC, Edwards SA. Assessment of immediate and long-term changes in pain sensitivity following tail-docking in pigs. In: RSPCA/AHVLA Meeting on Welfare of Agricultural Animals in Research. 2015, England, UK.
- Miller A, Leach MC. The effect of handling method on the mouse grimace scale in two strains of laboratory mice. Laboratory Animals 2015, epub ahead of print.
- Miller AL, Kitson GL, Skalkoyannis B, Leach MC. The effect of isoflurane anaesthesia and buprenorphine on the mouse grimace scale and behaviour in CBA and DBA/2 mice. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 2015, 172, 58-62.
- Miller AL, Leach MC. The Mouse Grimace Scale: A Clinically Useful Tool?. PLoS ONE 2015, 10(9), e0136000.
- Miller AL, Leach MC. Using the Mouse Grimace Scale to assess pain associated with routine ear notching and the effect of analgesia in laboratory mice. Laboratory Animals 2015, 49(2), 117-120.
- Sneddon LU, Elwood RW, Adamo SA, Leach MC. Defining and assessing animal pain. Animal Behaviour 2014, 97, 201-212.
- Dalla Costa E, Minero M, Lebelt D, Stucke D, Canali E, Leach MC. Development of the Horse Grimace Scale (HGS) as a Pain Assessment Tool in Horses Undergoing Routine Castration. PLoS ONE 2014, 9(3).
- Rocha GS, Roughan J, Leach M, Flecknell P, Ingram CD, Brandt K. Antinociceptive Activities of Hyptis crenata Pohl. In: II International Symposium on Medicinal and Nutraceutical Plants. 2013, New Delhi, India: International Society for Horticultural Science.
- Brieuc V, Flecknell P, Miller A, Thomas A, Leach M. Peut-on utilliser les expressions faciales pour étudier la douleur chez les rongeurs? (Can we use facial expressions to study pain in rodents?). STAL 2012, 38(3), 33-45.
- Robinson LM, Altschul DM, Wallace EK, Úbeda Y, Llorente M, Marchanda Z, Slocombe KE, Leach MC, Waran NK, Weiss A. Chimpanzees with positive welfare are happier, extraverted, and emotionally stable. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 2017, (ePub ahead of Print).
- Descovich KA, Wathan J, Leach MC, Buchanan-Smith HM, Flecknell P, Framingham D, Vick SJ. Facial expression: An under-utilised tool for the assessment of welfare in mammals. ALTEX 2017, 34(3), 409-429.
- DiGiminiani P, Sandercock DA, Malcolm EM, Leach MC, Herskin MS, Edwards SA. Application of a handheld Pressure Application Measurement device for the characterisation of mechanical nociceptive thresholds in intact pig tails. Physiology & Behavior 2016, 165, 119-126.
- Guesgen MA, Beausoleil NJ, Leach M, Minot EO, Stewart M, Stafford KJ. Coding and quantification of a facial expression for pain in lambs. Behavioural Processes 2016, 132, 49-56.
- McLennan KM, Rebelo CJB, Corke MJ, Holmes MA, Leach MC, Constantino-Casas F. Corrigendum to Development of a facial expression scale using footrot and mastitis as models of pain in sheep (vol 176, pg 19, 2016). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 2016, 179, 105-107.
- Davies GF, Greenhough BJ, Hobson-West P, Kirk RGW, Applebee K, Bellingan LC, Berdoy M, Buller H, Cassaday HJ, Davies K, Diefenbacher D, Druglitro T, Escobar MP, Friese C, Herrmann K, Hinterberger A, Jarrett WJ, Jayne K, Johnson AM, Johnson ER, Konold T, Leach MC, Leonelli S, Lewis DI, Lilley EJ, Longridge ER, McLeod CM, Miele M, Nelson NC, Ormandy EH, Pallett H, Poort L, Pound P, Ramsden E, Roe E, Scalway H, Schrader A, Scotton CJ, Scudamore CL, Smith JA, Whitfield L, Wolfensohn S. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare. PLoS ONE 2016, 11(7), e0158791.
- Whittaker AL, Leach MC, Preston FL, Lymn KA, Howarth GS. Effects of acute chemotherapy-induced mucositis on spontaneous behaviour and the grimace scale in laboratory rats. Laboratory Animals 2016, 50(2), 108-118.
- Ellen Y, Flecknell P, Leach M. Evaluation of Using Behavioural Changes to Assess Post-Operative Pain in the Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus). PLoS One 2016, 11(9), e0161941.
- Robinson LM, Waran NK, Leach MC, Morton FB, Paukner A, Lonsdorf E, Handel I, Wilson VAD, Brosnan SF, Weiss A. Happiness is positive welfare in brown capuchins (Sapajus apella). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 2016, 181, 145-151.
- Di Giminiani P, Malcolm EL, Leach MC, Herskin MS, Sandercock DA, Edwards SA. Temporal changes in mechanical nociceptive thresholds in juvenile pigs subjected to surgical tail amputation: a model of injury induced by tail biting. In: 24th International Pig Veterinary Society Congress. 2016, Dublin, Ireland.
- Di Giminiani P, Brierley VLMH, Scollo A, Gottardo F, Malcolm EM, Edwards SA, Leach MC. The Assessment of Facial Expressions in Piglets Undergoing Tail Docking and Castration: Toward the Development of the Piglet Grimace Scale. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 2016, 3, 100.
- Miller AL, Golledge HDR, Leach MC. The influence of isoflurane anaesthesia on the rat grimace scale. PLoS ONE 2016, 11(11), e0166652.
- Dalla-Costa E, Stucke D, Dai F, Minero M, Leach MC, Lebel D. Using the Horse Grimace Scale (HGS) to Assess Pain Associated with Acute Laminitis in Horses (Equus caballus). Animals 2016, 6(8).
- Miller AL, Kitson GL, Skalkoyannis B, Flecknell PA, Leach MC. Using the mouse grimace scale and behaviour to assess pain in CBA mice following vasectomy. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 2016, 181, 160-165.
- Leach MC, Klaus K, Miller AL, Scotto di Perrotolo M, Sotocinal SG, Flecknell PA. Are we looking in the right place? - Implications for assessing pain. In: ALTEX: 8th World Congress. 2012, Montreal, Canada: Springer Spektrum.
- Di Giminiani P, Edwards SA, Malcolm EM, Leach MC, Herskin MS, Sandercock DA. Characterization of short- and long-term mechanical sensitisation following surgical tail amputation in pigs. Scientific Reports 2017, 7, 4827.
- Di Giminiani P, Nasirahmadi A, Malcolm EM, Leach MC, Edwards SA. Docking piglet tails: How much does it hurt and for how long?. Physiology and Behaviour 2017, 182, 69-76.
- Sneddon LU, Lopez-Luna J, Wolfenden DCC, Leach MC, Valentim AM, Steenbergen PJ, Bardine N, Currie AD, Broom DM, Brown C. Response to: Responses of larval zebrafish to low pH immersion assay. Comment on Lopez-Luna et al. Journal of Experimental Biology 2017, 220(17), 3192-3194.
- Reigwart ML, Schoemaker NJ, Pascuzzo R, Leach MC, Stodel M, deNies L, Hendriksen CFM, vanderMeer M, Vinke CM, vanZeeland YRA. The composition and initial evaluation of a grimace scale in ferrets after surgical implantation of a telemetry probe. PLoS ONE 2017, 12(11), e0187986.
- Robinson LM, Waran NK, Leach MC, Morton FB, Paukner A, Lonsdorf E, Handel I, Wilson VAD, Brosnan SF, Weiss A. Corrigendum to “Happiness is positive welfare in brown capuchins (Sapajus apella)” [Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 181 (2016) 145–151]. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 2018, 204, 134-134.
- Clarkson JM, Dwyer DM, Flecknell PA, Leach MC, Rowe C. Handling method alters the hedonic value of reward in laboratory mice. Scientific Reports 2018, 8(1), 2448.
- Viscardi AV, Hunniford M, Lawlis P, Leach M, Turner PV. Development of a Piglet Grimace Scale to Evaluate Piglet Pain Using Facial Expressions Following Castration and Tail Docking: A Pilot Study. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 2017, 4, 51.
- Malik A, Leach M. How do we assess pain in rodents in veterinary practice, what do we know and why it is important?. Veterinary Nursing Journal 2017, 32(4), 103-108.
- Sneddon LU, Leach MC. Anthropomorphic denial of fish pain. Animal Sentience 2016, 1(3), 1-4.
- Thomas AA, Miller AL, Roughan JV, Malik A, Haylor KE, Sanderson C, Flecknell PA, Leach M. Efficacy of intrathecal morphine in a model of surgical pain in rats. PLOS One 2016, 11(10), e0163909.
- Hawkins P, Clutton RE, Dennison N, Guesgen M, Leach M, Sharpe F, Simmons H, Smith AJ, Webster J, Weyer U. Report of an RSPCA/AHVLA meeting on the welfare of agricultural animals in research: Cattle, goats, pigs and sheep. Animal Technology and Welfare 2014, 13(1), 43-56.