Postgraduate

Modules

Modules

SPE8158 : MSc Anatomy & Physiology for Speech and Language

Semesters
Semester 1 Credit Value: 10
Semester 2 Credit Value: 10
ECTS Credits: 10.0

Aims

This module aims to develop a sound understanding of the topic areas which provide the necessary underpinning for speech and language therapy practice. It includes relevant learning and teaching relating to anatomy and physiology, neuroanatomy and neurophysiology. It provides the student with core knowledge essential for understanding clinical concepts relating to speech and language disorders that will be encountered later in the course and by a practising speech and language therapist.

For students studying the clinical programme MSc Language Pathology, the HCPC Standards of Proficiency are of relevance. This module addresses the following standard: 13.9 understand biomedical and medical sciences as relevant to the development and maintenance of communication and swallowing
Along with several other modules, it also addresses aspects of:
13.1 understand the structure and function of the human body, together with knowledge of health, disease, impairment and dysfunction relevant to speech and language therapy
14.16 be able to apply knowledge of communication impairment, linguistics, phonetics, psychology and biomedical sciences to the identification, assessment and differential diagnosis of a range of communication and swallowing impairments

In relation to the RCSLT curriculum guidance, this module covers aspects related to 4.4.3 Biological and medical sciences, including general anatomy & physiology and biological processes with specific relevance for speech and language therapy.

Outline Of Syllabus

This module provides a basic level of understanding of general anatomy and physiology needed in order to understand both normal biological processes and pathological processes which may affect speech, language, hearing and other aspects of communication.

The curriculum includes:
•       Cell biology and histology. The cell membrane, diffusion, membrane transport, body fluid compartments, electrolyte concentrations
•       Basic structure and function of respiratory, cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous, musculoskeletal, sensory systems
o Cardiovascular system: Functional elements of the cardiovascular system, blood flow, mechanical activity of the heart, control of the cardiovascular system, circulation and the brain
o Respiratory system; Functional elements of the respiratory system; lung volumes and ventilation; pulmonary gas exchange and ventilation perfusion relationships; chemical and neural control of breathing
•       Biological processes with specific relevance for speech and language therapy, with a particular focus on:
o Anatomy and physiology of the vocal apparatus and ear.
o Gross anatomy of the external ear and tympanic cavity, role of the structures of the middle ear in sound transmission, anatomy of the membranous labyrinth, inner ear, Organ of Corti, cochlea.
o Respiration for speech. Thoracic cage: osteology and joints, thoracic muscles and diaphragm, anatomy of an intercostal space, contents of thorax: pleural cavities, lungs, heart and pericardium, mediastinum and its contents, mechanics of ventilation, ventilation during speech
o Larynx: external framework, extrinsic muscles and relations, intrinsic musculature, nerve supply, movements of the larynx during phonation, other functions of larynx
o The vocal tract (laryngeal, pharyngeal, oral and nasal cavities and the velopharyngeal system)
o Osteology of skull: anatomy of cranial vault, cranial base and facial skeleton
o Neck: osteology, fasciae and surface anatomy, posterior and anterior triangles thyroid gland and other viscera of the neck, carotid sheath and branches of external carotid, vagus nerve, laryngeal nerves, subclavian artery, root of neck, role of infrahyoid and other muscles of neck in speech production
o Face: craniofacial skeleton, muscles of facial expression, facial nerve, cutaneous innervation of face and trigeminal nerve, blood supply, parotid gland, parotid region, scalp and temporal region, muscles of facial expression and the production of speech
o Infratemporal fossa: osteology, muscles of mastication, mandibular division of V, maxillary artery and temporo-mandibular joint, movement of the jaw during swallowing and speech
o Submandibular region: boundaries and contents
o Oral cavity: floor of mouth, the tongue and its sensory and motor innervation, mucous membrane, movements of the tongue during speech
o Pharynx: regions musculature and nerve supply, role of the muscles of the pharyngeal wall in speech production
o Soft palate; form, attachment musculature and function, movements of the soft palate during swallowing and speech
o Swallowing; stages of swallowing, muscles involved in swallowing, neural control

•       Neuroanatomy and neurophysiology.
•       Organisation of the brain and cranial nerves
o Interior of cranium: cranial sutures, grooves and foramina, cranial fossae and contents dural reflections, venous sinuses, vertebral column and spinal cord, relationship of brain to cranial cavity and cranial nerves, intracranial haemorrhages.
o Gross topography of the brain: anatomical subdivisions of the nervous system, neuroanatomical terms, introduction to topographic anatomy of the brain.
o Blood supply of the brain: internal carotid and vertebral arterial systems and the circle of Willis, the meninges and the ventricular system.
o Neurocytology: fine structure of neurones and glial cells, cell biology of neurones, neuronal injury. o Peripheral nerves and myelination: structure of sensory receptors, structure of peripheral

Teaching Methods

Please note that module leaders are reviewing the module teaching and assessment methods for Semester 2 modules, in light of the Covid-19 restrictions. There may also be a few further changes to Semester 1 modules. Final information will be available by the end of August 2020 in for Semester 1 modules and the end of October 2020 for Semester 2 modules.

Teaching Activities
Category Activity Number Length Student Hours Comment
Structured Guided LearningLecture materials271:0027:009 physiology sem 1, 9 anatomy sem 1, 9 anatomy sem 2
Guided Independent StudyAssessment preparation and completion140:0040:00N/A
Scheduled Learning And Teaching ActivitiesPractical42:008:00Anatomy Practicals - Face to Face
Structured Guided LearningStructured research and reading activities181:0018:009 physiology sem 1, 9 anatomy sem 2
Scheduled Learning And Teaching ActivitiesWorkshops131:0013:00On-line workshops
Guided Independent StudyIndependent study192:0092:00N/A
Scheduled Learning And Teaching ActivitiesModule talk21:002:00Online synchronous introduction. 1 x anatomy, 1 x physiology.
Total200:00
Teaching Rationale And Relationship

Introductory module talks to introduce the module content and format. Lecture material to introduce ideas which are then supported via structured reading and research. On-line anatomy workshops to allow students to see images to support learning and face to face practical work.


The directed self-study will focus on simple case examples and clinical illustrations of the points made. Students are expected to undertake private study each week in preparation for the lectures that week and to consolidate the material of the week before. This is designed to encourage them to an understanding of the applications of anatomical and physiological knowledge to clinical problems and to broaden their reading and thinking about those applications.

Assessment Methods

Please note that module leaders are reviewing the module teaching and assessment methods for Semester 2 modules, in light of the Covid-19 restrictions. There may also be a few further changes to Semester 1 modules. Final information will be available by the end of August 2020 in for Semester 1 modules and the end of October 2020 for Semester 2 modules.

The format of resits will be determined by the Board of Examiners

Other Assessment
Description Semester When Set Percentage Comment
Essay1A50Physiology Essay, 2500 words
Essay2A50Anatomy Essay, 3000 words
Assessment Rationale And Relationship

The written assignments will test the ability to demonstrate a fuller understanding of the anatomical and physiological knowledge of speech and language and the ability to apply that knowledge in relation to the understanding of specific pathologies, written assignments will allow for a more in depth appraisal and report than would be possible in a time-limited examination.

Reading Lists

Timetable