|Semester 1 Credit Value:||10|
Stage 1 modules in biochemistry and genetics
To develop concepts of genome organisation and of prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene expression, to discuss how gene expression is regulated, and to illustrate the significance of this regulation for cell function and development. To revise important metabolic pathways studied in Stage 1 biochemistry and to consider their activities in the liver, muscle and adipose tissue; to introduce mechanisms by which these activities are controlled and coordinated both within and between the tissues.
This module develops concepts of molecular biology and metabolic integration that are essential for the application of modern biology to understanding and improving human and animal nutrition. It deals with genome organisation and prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene expression, discusses how gene expression is regulated, and illustrates the significance of this regulation for cell function and for development. It considers the specialised metabolic activities of major mammalian tissues and the mechanisms by which these activities are regulated.
Review of fundamentals of gene expression.
Transcription in eukaryotes and prokaryotes: mechanisms of transcription, structure and function of promoters, RNA polymerases, transcription termination.
Operons and mechanisms of operon regulation.
Sensing of the environment: prokaryotes as a model.
The organisation of eukaryotic genomes; chromatin structure and its significance for transcription.
Introduction to transcription regulation in eukaryotes and its significance for cell differentiation.
Regulation of gene expression by external signals such as hormones.
Introduction to metabolic integration.
Allosteric proteins; allosteric control of energy metabolism; oxygen-carrying proteins.
Hormonal control of energy metabolism.
Muscle structure and contraction; control of muscle contraction by nerve impulses.
The Cori cycle, the glucose-alanine cycle.
Practical Exercise: computer-based analysis of DNA sequences; interpretatiom of gene expression data.
By the end of the module students should know the basic components of gene regulatory systems in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and should understand the ways that specific genes or groups of genes are switched on and off during development and in response to hormones and changes in the environment. Students should have enhanced their appreciation of principles and mechanisms of metabolic integration and control through extended biochemical knowledge of metabolic cycles, the regulation of metabolic activity allosterically and by peptide and steroid hormones, and the mechanisms of muscle contraction. They should be able to make simple predictions of the effects of different dietary and physiological conditions on metabolic activities in different tissues.
Students will have (a) gained experience in using computers to analyse DNA and protein sequences, including translation of DNA sequences, simple analysis of predicted protein properties, querying DNA and protein sequence databases and interpretation of gene structure; (b) developed their skills in analysing and interpreting gene expression data and metabolic information.
|Graduate Skills Framework Applicable:||Yes|
|Guided Independent Study||Assessment preparation and completion||21||0:15||5:15||Class test revision|
|Guided Independent Study||Assessment preparation and completion||21||0:30||10:30||Exam revision|
|Guided Independent Study||Assessment preparation and completion||3||1:00||3:00||Computer practical assessment and preparation for biochemical problems assessment|
|Scheduled Learning And Teaching Activities||Lecture||24||1:00||24:00||Includes 1hr class test, 1hr exam practice, 1hr introduction to biochemical problems|
|Guided Independent Study||Assessment preparation and completion||1||1:30||1:30||Final exam|
|Scheduled Learning And Teaching Activities||Practical||1||2:00||2:00||Computer practical|
|Scheduled Learning And Teaching Activities||Practical||1||1:00||1:00||Biochemical problems|
|Guided Independent Study||Skills practice||6||1:00||6:00||Computer practical follow-up and biochemical problems homework|
|Guided Independent Study||Independent study||21||1:00||21:00||Lecture follow up|
|Guided Independent Study||Independent study||1||25:45||25:45||Study of lectures, ReCap, Blackboard etc.|
The lectures explain key concepts, outline illustrative examples, and introduce the computer practical and biochemical problems. In two lectures, progress is assessed and feedback given through short quizzes. In one lecture, progress is assessed and feedback given through marking the biochemical problem assignment. The final lecture is a review session. The class tests provide further opportunities for progress assessment and feedback through an essay exam practice question and a short-answer/multiple-choice test. In the computer practicals, students use computers to analyse DNA and protein sequences with supervision and guidance and interpret data on gene expression regulation. Private study is necessary for students to absorb information presented in lectures, to deepen their knowledge and understanding through reading supporting references, to write up the computer practical, and to do the problems.
The format of resits will be determined by the Board of Examiners
|PC Examination||90||1||A||72||Short answers and essay|
|Module Code||Module Title||Semester||Comment|
|BIO2023||Cell Biology 2||1||N/A|
|Practical/lab report||1||M||10||Report on computer practical & gene expression data interpretation|
|Written exercise||1||M||18||Practice exam (2%); quizzes (2 X 2%); Biochemical problems (7%); In-course test (5%)|
The exam uses short answer questions (50%) and one essay question (50%) to test knowledge and understanding and ability to integrate knowledge and explain relevant principles. The computer practical and gene expression data interpretation report (deadline week 6) tests students' ability to use computer programs to obtain information about DNA and proteins and to interpret this information and data on gene expression in relation to their knowledge of molecular genetics. Assessment of the problem assignment (deadline week 10) tests ability to carry out specific forms of biochemical analysis and to interpret the results. The quizzes (TW 3 and 5) and more substantial in-course test (week 11) indicate progress and provide an incentive for sustained study. The exam practice question (week 11) gives students the opportunity and incentive to develop their exam technique in a situation with minimal pressure on them.
Note: The Module Catalogue now reflects module information relating to academic year 14/15. Please contact your School Office if you require module information for a previous academic year.
Disclaimer: The University will use all reasonable endeavours to deliver modules in accordance with the descriptions set out in this catalogue. Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, however, the University reserves the right to introduce changes to the information given including the addition, withdrawal or restructuring of modules if it considers such action to be necessary.