Professor Mark Whittingham
Professor of Applied Ecology
- Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Telephone: +44 (0) 191 208 6599
- Address: School of Natural and Environmental Sciences (SNES),
Ridley Building (Room 5.66),
Overview - interdisciplinary and ecological research
There are two major challenges that shape my research. First, the rate of species extinction on earth is rapidly approaching estimates from previous mass-extinction events. The consequences of this are not only the intrinsic loss of the diversity of wildlife on earth but also the services these organisms provide for humans. My work focuses on providing a scientific evidence base to guide management of wildlife in these challenging times. Second, providing enough food for people (Food Security) is of major societal importance but if it is not to directly conflict with biodiversity loss then there is a need for sustainable farming.
Work earlier in my career focused on understanding the ecology and behaviour of a range of organisms with a central focus on vertebrates (especially birds). I continue to try and understand the ecology, particularly foraging ecology and predation risk, of a range of species. However, I have also become increasingly interested in interdisciplinary work for example: (i) how management aimed at wildlife affects a range of other metrics (e.g. social metrics such as poverty and other environmental metrics, such as soil); (ii) the human benefits of wildlife both in monetary and non-monetary terms.
I have been funded by the following organisations: BBSRC, ESRC, NERC, RELU, VNN, DEFRA, NE, RSPB, Scottish Windfarms Bird Steering Group, BSG Ecology and a range of industrial companies.
PDFs of my publications can be found here: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Mark_Whittingham/publications
Citations to my papers in google scholar can be found here: http://scholar.google.co.uk/citations?user=zpZRWIwAAAAJ&hl=en
Fellow of the Royal Society of Biology (FRSB).
Recently finished (Jan 2016) as a Senior Editor of Journal of Applied Ecology after six years in the role.
Academy of Finland panel (2016-date).
IPBES European and Central Asia Lead Author (2015-2017).
North-east Local Nature Partnership committee (http://neenp.org.uk/)
Ecology BSc (Hons) University of East Anglia (1988-1991)
PhD at Sunderland University (1993-1996)
Post-doc at Oxford University (with John Krebs) (1998-2004)
BBSRC David Phillips Fellow (2004-2009)
Reader at Newcastle University (2009-2013)
Professor at Newcastle University (2013-date)
Football, running, birdwatching.
Current university administration
Theme leader for IAFRI (http://www.ncl.ac.uk/iafri/)
N8 agri-tech grant steering group
Committee member (Centre for Behaviour and Evolution)
Previous university administrative roles:
1.School of Biology Director of Research (http://www.ncl.ac.uk/biology/) and executive school board member (2013-August 2017).
2. After changing the focus and rebranding this course with a new name I was DPD for the Ecological Consultancy Masters programme (2012-2016). The course attracts around 15-20 students in a typical year.
3. Co-wrote UoA7 submission for REF2014.
4. School of Biology postgraduate committee (2009-2011).
Current Research group - 4 post-docs and 9 PhD students
My group currently includes one research fellow Dr Matt Hiron (http://www.ncl.ac.uk/biology/staff/profile/matthiron.html#background) who came to the UK for a year to work in my group and has now returned to Sweden for the final part of his fellowship, and three post-docs. Dr Caroline Rhymer is a part-time post-doc working with me on two NERC funded projects until March 2019. Dr Nadheer Fazaa has just begun a 5 year post doc (until 2022) with me working on environmental issues in Iraq (funded by the Ministry of Environment in Iraq). Dr Nick Littlewood is leading a field team of two bird surveyors collecting data on upland moorland management (Nick is funded by the Charities Aid Foundation) and his funding will cease in November 2017. I currently have 6 PhD students (see teaching page) with three new students starting in Autumn 2017.
I would be very happy to hear from you if you have funding for a PhD or are interested in collaborating or applying for a Fellowship to work in my group.
The ethos of the group is to work together in a collaborative and supportive environment to achieve high quality research with direct applied outcomes.
Biodiversity, conservation, agro-ecology, interdisciplinary research, foraging ecology and behavioural ecology.
Current and future grants
1. Horizon 2020 - through to stage 2 (will be submitted in Sep 2017). 10 Million Euros.
2. Ministry of Iraq - £230,000 (2017-2022). Funding for five year post-doc to investigate impacts of climate change on the natural environment and the services it provides to Iraq. A range of additional bids are being prepared to develop the protected area network in Iraq, to train Iraqi staff in environmental work and to provide mitigation strategies for climate change in the short, medium and long-term.
3. Tanzania £12,000 (2017-2018). Pump priming grant to set up larger bids with newly developed significant trust fund for interdisciplinary work in the agricultural and environmental sectors.
4. Charities Aid Foundation - £50,000 (2017-2018). First year is largely a pilot project to investigate the impacts of grouse moor management on birds. Further work to follow.
5. Valuing Nature Programme - Peatland Tipping Points (2016-2019). Researchers from Newcastle and Leeds universities, the Scottish Association for Marine Science, the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology and the British Trust for Ornithology have been awarded almost half a million pounds by the Natural Environment Research Council’s Valuing Nature Programme to investigate ecosystems that are moving towards “tipping points” where they could rapidly collapse, no longer providing society with important services. Bogs are important resources currently providing most of the UK’s drinking water and protection for our climate by locking up carbon within the peat. There is a danger that climate change and current land management practices may lead of rapid and costly loss of water quality and biodiversity, while contributing towards further climate change. See http://lecmsr.wixsite.com/peatlandtippingpoint for further details.
6. FORMAS Mobility Grant (2015-18). Dr Matt Hiron to work in my group for two years and then return to Sweden for a further year to work on the project. Project outline - Biodiversity loss is higher now than at any other time in recorded history. At the same time food security and environmentally friendly farming are at the forefront of the global political agenda. Scientists and policy makers have embraced the notion of Ecosystem Services (ESs) as a way to unite these concepts. Small-scale studies suggest that birds provide an ES via regulating important crop pest populations through the consumption of weed seeds and invertebrates. However, evidence of the extent of the role of birds as crop pest regulators on larger scales and on crop yields is lacking. Birds are charismatic and bird watching is a major pastime for millions; thus birds also provide a Cultural ES. We will also use existing bird survey data in Swedish farmland to guide land management for regulating services, cultural services or both.
7. GCRF Resilience Foundation Award "DRIER-China: Drought Resilience In Ecosystem services and Rural communities in China". 2016-2017.
Recent past grants
1. Marie-Curie Fellowship (2014-17) - £240,000. The main objective of the project is to understand the relationship between community-based forest management practices, and the ecological health of local forests and biodiversity. During the outgoing phase, the Fellow (Dr Johan Oldekop) is working in close collaboration with International Forestry Resources and Institutions (IFRI) Network, which is based at the University of Michigan. Johan is working on combining one of the largest socio-ecological datasets with satellite image analyses of forest cover change.
2. Impacts of soil compaction on agriculture and biodiversity (2009-2014) (DEFRA) - £700,000. Soil compaction is widely perceived by the agricultural community as a negative driver of grass yields. However, the evidence base for this is limited. Here we carry out an extensive observational study of the factors driving associated with increased soil compaction across England and Wales. We then explore a range of mechanical and biological ways to relieve soil compaction and explore the consequences for yield, soil invertebrates, ground-probing farmland birds and hydrology (including flood risk).
3. ESRC (2013-2015) Interdisciplinary Exchanges: Natural Resource Management in the 21st Century. A series of six interdisciplinary workshops to explore a current issues including community-based natural resource management and food security.
4. Belmont Forum (2014-15). The overall objective of the project is to draw on research skills from South Africa, UK, US and the Netherlands to build an international community of researchers closely linked to a range of stakeholders across southern Africa’s public and private organisations. This community will then be able to co-design and jointly undertake research on (i) the effectiveness and adaptiveness of food system governance arrangements for food security; and (ii) food systems governance as driver of land use change and implications for associated ecosystem services.
Funding - summary
2017 £230,000 funded by Ministry of Iraq to work on environmental management and climate change in Iraq.
2017 £50,000 funded by charities aid foundation to work on "Impact of moorland grouse management on birds".
2016 c£159,000 GCRF Resilience Foundation Award "DRIER-China: Drought Resilience In Ecosystem services and Rural communities in China". 2016-2017.
2016 c£400,000 Valuing Nature Network grant "Peatland Tipping Points" 2016-2019 (funded by NERC, BBSRC, AHRC, ESRC & DEFRA) (see http://lecmsr.wixsite.com/peatlandtippingpoint for further details).
2015 £240,000 - FORMAS mobility grant for Dr Matt Hiron to work in my group for two years and then continue working on the project for a further year back at SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
2014 £250,000 - Belmont Forum funded one year grant for capacity building to address Food Security in Southern Africa (co-I).
2013 c£230,000 EU Marie Curie outgoing Fellowship (2014-2016) for Dr Johan Oldekop to work in my group.
2013 c£30,000 ESRC Interdisciplinary Exchanges: Natural Resource Management in the 21st Century (2013-2015).
2012 Funding for two PhDs to study the impacts of climate change on wildlife in the Middle East.
2012 £25,000 from Wildlife Acoustics to investigate the use of audio recorders to survey birds.
2012 £60,000 from Langholm Demonstration Project for PhD on the impacts of buzzards on red grouse.
2011 "Effects of wind turbines on birds" (PhD part funded by WPA).
2011-13 £136,000 (PI) "MAPISCO - developing a method for species prioritisation".
2010 RELU grant "Collaboration in agri-environment schemes" (£140k) joint with Dr Jeremy Franks.
2010 NERC studentship "Galliforme conservation in the Himalayas" in collaboration with World Pheasant Association.
2009 4 year DEFRA grant (£700,000 - £176k to Newcastle) to investigate the extent of soil compaction in England and Wales and how it can be potentially be remediated to benefit birds and soil invertebrates.
2009 NERC grant entitled "Estimating the independent effects of different components of organic farming on biodiversity". (£82,000).
2008 NERC studentship departmental quota award - Climate change and bird demography started 1st October 2008 (funded for 3.5 years).
2008 £40,000 from Natural England towards PhD project on kestrels.
2007 £4752 - Catherine Cookson Foundation Grant 'Why do birds prefer organic food?'.
2006 £5000 - Award from BSG for work on windfarms and farmland birds.
2006 £10,000 - Award from English Nature for pilot project on kestrels.
2005 £2200 – Awarded by RSPB for pilot project on stubble management.
2005 NERC CASE studentship with BTO.
2004 £361,000 - Awarded a 5-year BBSRC David Phillips Fellowship. This paid my salary for 5 years (£204,000) and came with a tied grant of £157,000.
2001-4 Jointly awarded 3 DPhil studentships (1 from NERC and 2 from BBSRC) with Sir John Krebs, two from October 2001-2004 and one from October 2003-2006.
2000-3 Involved with two PhD projects and the setting up of a research institute in Nigeria in collaboration with Dr Will Cresswell.
2001 £230,000 awarded by BBSRC in for three-year project entitled “Testing the trans-situationality of bird-habitat models in agricultural landscapes” (I wrote the proposal and Sir John Krebs was Principal Investigator).
1999 £6000 from English Nature for project entitled “The effect of field margin management on foraging by breeding yellowhammers”.
1999 £750 from the Royal Society to attend a conference in Utah, USA.
1998 £35,000 from the European Commission for EU database work.
1996 £1500 from English Nature for project entitled “Population dynamics of golden plover”.
1991 Awarded £400 travel scholarship by the University of East Anglia for Mexico expedition.
BIO 2003/BIO8006: Field Identification Skills Summer - Bird identification (Fieldcourse Leader).
BIO 2003/BIO8006: Field Identification Skills Autumn - Bird identification (Fieldcourse Leader).
BIO 3012: Conservation Biology Issues (Contributor).
BIO 3094-6. Research, information and review projects (Contributor).
SPG8013: Environmental Impact Assessment (Module Leader).
BIO8055: Wildlife Management: Policy and Practice 1 (Contributor).
Current PhD students:
Pen-Yuan Hsing (http://www.conservationecology.org/pen-yuan-hsing.html)
Claire Branston (http://www.conservationecology.org/claire-branston.html)
Stuart Brooker (http://www.conservationecology.org/stuart-brooker.html)
Maire Kirkland (http://www.conservationecology.org/maire-kirkland.html)
Regularly supervise masters projects (e.g. 8 supervised in 2013-14).
BIO 3194-6: Honours research, review and information projects (8 in 2015-16).
Total of c20 undergrad and masters students.
- Termeer K, Drimie S, Ingram J, Pereira L, Whittingham MJ. A diagnostic framework for food system governance arrangements: the case of South Africa. NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 2017. Submitted.
- Reed MS, Allen K, Attlee A, Dougill AD, Evans K, Kenter J, Hoy J, McNab D, Stead S, Twyman C, Scott A, Smyth MA, Stringer LC, Whittingham MJ. A Place-Based Approach to Payments for Ecosystem Services. Global Environmental Change 2017, 43, 92-106.
- Oldekop JA, Sims KRE, Karna BK, Whittingham MJ, Agrawal A. An upside to globalization: international migration drives reforestation in Nepal. Global Environmental Change 2017. Submitted.
- Frewer L, Whittingham MJ, Stewart G, Hudson J, Brereton P, Jones G. Antimicrobial resistance in the food chain: a review. Trends in Food Science and Technology 2017. Submitted.
- Oldekop JA, Sims KRE, Karna BK, Whittingham MJ, Agrawal A. Decentralized forest management simultaneously reduces deforestation and poverty. Nature 2017. Submitted.
- Fazaa NA, Dunn JC, Whittingham MJ. Distributions and Community Composition of Birds in Iraq’ s Central Marsh. International Journal of Biodiversity 2017, 2017, 4198690.
- Ingram J, Colvin J, Drimie S, Irani T, Johnston P, Oughton E, Pereira L, Termeer K, Whittingham MJ. Food System Governance, Food Security and Land Use in Southern Africa: Towards a Research Community based on Stakeholder Dialogue. Land 2017. Submitted.
- Bolam F, Grainger M, Wrieden W, Halligan J, Leinonen I, Benton T, Pickett K, Ingram J, Reynolds C, Frewer L, Whittingham MJ, Stewart G. Healthy climate friendly diets are achievable for some but not all. The Lancet 2017. In Preparation.
- Bhogal A, Nicholson FA, Rollett A, Taylor M, Litterick A, Whittingham MJ, Williams JR. Improvements in the quality of agricultural soils following organic material additions depend on both the quantity and quality of the materials applied. Soil & Tillage 2017. Submitted.
- Francksen RM, Whittingham MJ, Ludwig SC, Roos S, Baines D. Numerical and functional responses of Common Buzzards Buteo buteo to prey abundance on a Scottish grouse moor. Ibis 2017, epub ahead of print.
- Hiron M, Part T, Siriwardena GM, Whittingham MJ. Species contributions to single biodiversity values under-estimate community contribution to a wider range of values to society. Nature 2017. Submitted.
- Manning P, VanderPlas F, Soliveres S, Allan E, Maestre FT, Mace G, Whittingham MJ, Fischer M. What is multifunctionality?. Nature Ecology and Evolution 2017. Submitted.
- Barlow J, Cadotte M, Newton E, Pettorelli N, Plane A, Stephens PA, Whittingham MJ. Achieving and communicating globally relevant applied ecological research. Journal of Applied Ecology 2016, 53(1), 1-4.
- Francksen RM, Whittingham MJ, Baines D. Assessing prey provisioned to Common Buzzard Buteo buteo chicks: a comparison of methods. Bird Study 2016, 63(3), 303-310.
- Franks JR, Emery SB, Whittingham MJ, McKenzie AJ. Farmer attitudes to cross-holding agri-environment schemes and their implications for Countryside Stewardship. International Journal of Agricultural Management 2016, 5(4), 78-95.
- Dunn JC, Buchanan GM, Stein RW, Whittingham MJ, McGowan PJK. Optimising different types of biodiversity coverage of protected areas with a case study using Himalayan Galliformes. Biological Conservation 2016, 196, 22-30.
- Lees KJ, McKenzie AJ, Newell-Price JP, Critchley CNR, Rhymer CM, Chambers BJ, Whittingham MJ. The effects of soil compaction mitigation on below-ground fauna: how earthworms respond to mechanical loosening and power harrow cultivation. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 2016, 232, 273-282.
- Zwart MC, Dunn JC, McGowan PJK, Whittingham MJ. Wind farm noise suppresses territorial defense behavior in a songbird. Behavioral Ecology 2016, 27(1), 101-108.
- Francksen RM, Whittingham MJ, Ludwig SC, Baines D. Winter diet of Common Buzzards Buteo buteo on a Scottish grouse moor. Bird Study 2016, 63(4), 525-532.
- Dunn JC, Zwart MC, Kerr S, Fielding AH, Whittingham MJ. Desk based evaluation of wind farms and habitat management in Scotland. Edinburgh, Scotland: SWBSG, 2015. SWBSG 1503.
- Stephens PA, Pettorelli N, Barlow J, Whittingham MJ, Cadotte MW. Management by proxy? The use of indices in applied ecology. Journal of Applied Ecology 2015, 52(1), 1-6.
- Dunn JC, Buchanan GM, Cuthbert RJ, Whittingham MJ, McGowan PJK. Mapping the potential distribution of the Critically Endangered Himalayan Quail Ophrysia superciliosa using proxy species and species distribution modelling. Bird Conservation International 2015, 25(4), 466-478.
- Rhodes CJ, Henrys P, Siriwardena GM, Whittingham MJ, Norton LR. The relative value of field survey and remote sensing for biodiversity assessment. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 2015, 6(7), 772-781.
- Zwart MC, Robson P, Rankin S, Whittingham MJ, McGowan PJK. Using environmental impact assessment and post-construction monitoring data to inform wind energy developments. Ecosphere 2015, 6(2), 26.
- Zwart MC, Baker A, McGowan PJK, Whittingham MJ. The Use of Automated Bioacoustic Recorders to Replace Human Wildlife Surveys: An Example Using Nightjars. PLoS One 2014, 9(7), e102770.
- Blackwell BF, Seamans TW, Schmidt PM, De Vault TL, Belant JL, Whittingham MJ, Martin JA, Fernandez-Juricic E. A framework for managing airport grasslands and birds amidst conflicting priorities. Ibis 2013, 155(1), 199-203.
- Milner-Gulland EJ, Barlow J, Cadotte M, Hulme P, Whittingham MJ. Celebrating the golden jubilee of the Journal of Applied Ecology. Journal of Applied Ecology 2013, 50(1), 1-3.
- McKenzie A, Emery S, Franks J, Whittingham M. Landscape-scale conservation: collaborative agri-environment schemes could benefit both biodiversity and eccosystem services, but will farmers be willing to participate?. Journal of Applied Ecology 2013, 50(5), 1274-1280.
- Newell-Price JP, Whittingham MJ, Chambers BJ, Peel S. Visual soil evaluation in relation to measured soil physical properties in a survey of grassland soil compaction in England and Wales. Soil & Tillage Research 2013, 127, 65-73.
- Rhymer CM, Devereux CL, Denny MJH, Whittingham MJ. Diet of Starling Sturnus vulgaris nestlings on farmland: the importance of Tipulidae larvae. Bird Study 2012, 59(4), 426-436.
- Milner-Gulland EJ, Barlow J, Cadotte MW, Hulme PE, Kerby G, Whittingham MJ. Ensuring applied ecology has impact. Journal of Applied Ecology 2012, 49(1), 1-5.
- Garcia del Rey E, Whittingham MJ. Habitat associations of wintering granivorous birds on the Canary Islands. Ornis Fennica 2012, 89(2), 130-138.
- Garratt CM, Minderman J, Whittingham MJ. Should we stay or should we go now? What happens to small mammals when grass is mown, and the implications for birds of prey. Annales Zoologici Fennici 2012, 49(1-2), 113-122.
- Brilot BO, Nettle D, Whittingham MJ, Bateson M, Read JCA. When is general wariness favored in avoiding multiple predators?. The American Naturalist 2012, 179(6), E180-E195.
- Peggie CT, Garratt CM, Whittingham MJ. Creating ephemeral resources: how long do the beneficial effects of grass cutting last for birds?. Bird Study 2011, 58(4), 390-398.
- McKenzie AJ, Vickery JA, Leifert C, Shotton P, Whittingham MJ. Disentangling the effects of fertilisers and pesticides on winter stubble use by farmland birds. Basic and Applied Ecology 2011, 12(1), 80-88.
- Garratt CM, Hughes M, Eagle G, Fowler T, Grice PV, Whittingham MJ. Foraging habitat selection by breeding Common Kestrels Falco tinnunculus on lowland farmland in England. Bird Study 2011, 58(1), 90-98.
- Kenward RE, Whittingham MJ, Arampatzis S, Manos BD, Hahn T, Terry A, Simoncini R, Alcorn J, Bastian O, Donlan M, Elowe K, Franzén F, Karacsonyi Z, Larsson M, Manou D, Navodaru I, Papadopoulou O, Papathanasiou J, von Raggamby A, Sharp RJA, Söderqvist T, Soutukorva Å, Vavrova L, Aebischer NJ, Leader-Williams N, Rutz C. Identifying governance strategies that effectively support ecosystem services, resource sustainability, and biodiversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2011, 108(13), 5308-5312.
- Richards SA, Whittingham MJ, Stephens PA. Model selection and model averaging in behavioural ecology: the utility of the IT-AIC framework. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 2011, 65(1), 77-89.
- Franks JR, Emery SB, Whittingham MJ, McKenzie AJ. Options for landscape scale collaboration under the UK's environmental stewardship scheme. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Newcastle University CRE Research Report, 2011.
- Whittingham MJ. The future of agri-environment schemes: biodiversity gains and ecosystem service delivery?. Journal of Applied Ecology 2011, 48(3), 509-513.
- McKenzie AJ, Whittingham MJ. Birds select conventional over organic wheat when given free choice. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 2010, 90(11), 1861-1869.
- Rhymer CM, Robinson RA, Smart J, Whittingham MJ. Can ecosystem services be integrated with conservation? A case study of breeding waders on grassland. IBIS 2010, 152(4), 698-712.
- Pearce-Higgins JW, Dennis P, Whittingham MJ, Yalden DW. Impacts of climate on prey abundance account for fluctuations in a population of a northern wader at the southern edge of its range. Global Change Biology 2010, 16(1), 12-23.
- Girardello M, Griggio M, Whittingham MJ, Rushton SP. Models of climate associations and distributions of amphibians in Italy. Ecological Research 2010, 25(1), 103-111.
- Minderman J, Reid JM, Hughes M, Denny MJH, Hogg S, Evans PGH, Whittingham MJ. Novel environment exploration and home range size in starlings Sturnus vulgaris. Behavioral Ecology 2010, 21(6), 1321-1329.
- Memmott J, Cadotte M, Hulme PE, Kerby G, Milner-Gulland EJ, Whittingham MJ. Putting applied ecology into practice. Journal of Applied Ecology 2010, 47(1), 1-4.
- Cresswell W, Quinn JL, Whittingham MJ, Butler SJ. Freezing behaviour on attack by a potential predator is an adaptive risk-assessment period in chaffinches. Behaviour 2009, 146(6), 795-813.
- Whittingham MJ, Krebs JR, Swetnam RD, Thewlis RM, Wilson JD, Freckleton RP. Habitat associations of British breeding farmland birds. Bird Study 2009, 56(1), 43-52.
- Jones KA, Krebs JR, Whittingham MJ. Heavier birds react faster to predators: individual differences in the detection of stalking and ambush predators. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 2009, 63(9), 1319-1329.
- Girardello M, Griggio M, Whittingham MJ, Rushton SP. Identifying important areas for butterfly conservation in Italy. Animal Conservation 2009, 12(1), 20-28.
- Minderman J, Reid JM, Evans PGH, Whittingham MJ. Personality traits in wild starlings: exploration behavior and environmental sensitivity. Behavioral Ecology 2009, 20(4), 830-837.
- Cresswell W, Butler S, Whittingham MJ, Quinn JL. Very short delays prior to escape from potential predators may function efficiently as adaptive risk-assessment periods. Behaviour 2009, 146(6), 795-813.
- McKenzie AJ, Whittingham MJ. Why are birds more abundant on organic farms?. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 2009, 7(2), 807-814.
- Jones KA, Whittingham MJ. Anti-predator signals in the chaffinch Fringilla coelebs in response to habitat structure and different predator types. Ethology 2008, 114(11), 1033-1043.
- Whittingham MJ, Devereux CL. Changing grass height alters foraging site selection by wintering farmland birds. Basic and Applied Ecology 2008, 9(6), 779-788.
- Devereux CL, Fernandez-Juricic E, Krebs JR, Whittingham MJ. Habitat affects escape behaviour and alarm calling in Common Starlings Sturnus vulgaris. Ibis 2008, 150(S1), 191-198.
- Devereux C, Denny M, Whittingham MJ. Minimal effects of wind turbines on the distribution of wintering farmland birds. Journal of Applied Ecology 2008, 45(6), 1689-1694.
- Whittingham MJ, Krebs JR, Swetnam RD, Vickery JA, Wilson JD, Freckleton RP. Should conservation strategies consider spatial generality? Farmland birds show regional not national patterns of habitat association. Ecology Letters 2007, 10(1), 25-35.
- McGregor R, Whittingham MJ, Cresswell W. Survival rates of tropical birds in Nigeria, West Africa. Ibis 2007, 149(3), 615-618.
- Jones KA, Krebs JR, Whittingham MJ. Vigilance in the third dimension: head movement not scan duration varies in response to different predator models. Animal Behaviour 2007, 74(5), 1181-1187.
- Whittingham MJ. Will agri-environment schemes deliver substantial biodiversity gain, and if not why not?. Journal of Applied Ecology 2007, 44(1), 1-5.
- Rutz C, Whittingham MJ, Newton I. Age-dependent diet choice in an avian top predator. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 2006, 273(1586), 579-586.
- Whittingham MJ, Devereux CL, Evans AD, Bradbury RB. Altering perceived predation risk and food availability: Management prescriptions to benefit farmland birds on stubble fields. Journal of Applied Ecology 2006, 43(4), 640-650.
- Jones KA, Krebs JR, Whittingham MJ. Diet and habitat structure interact to influence patch choice in a granivorous bird, the chaffinch Fringilla coelebs. Journal of Avian Biology 2006, 37(5), 413-418.
- Devereux CL, Vickery JA, Fernandez-Juricic E, Krebs JR, Whittingham MJ. Does sward density affect prey availability for grassland birds?. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 2006, 117(1), 57-62.
- Jones KA, Krebs JR, Whittingham MJ. Interaction between seed crypsis and habitat structure influence patch choice in a granivorous bird, the chaffinch Fringilla coelebs. Journal of Avian Biology 2006, 37(5), 413-418.
- Quinn JL, Whittingham MJ, Butler SJ, Cresswell W. Noise, predation risk compensation and vigilance in the chaffinch Fringilla coelebs. Journal of Avian Biology 2006, 37(6), 601-608.
- Quinn JL, Whittingham MJ, Butler SJ, Cresswell W. Noise, predation risk compensation and vigilance in the chaffinch Fringilla coelebs. Journal of Avian biology 2006, 37, 601-608.
- Devereux CL, Whittingham MJ, Fernandez-Juricic E, Vickery JA, Krebs JR. Predator detection and avoidance by starlings under differing scenarios of predation risk. Behavioral Ecology 2006, 17(2), 303-309.
- Devereux CL, Whittingham MJ, Fernandez-Juricic E, Vickery JA, Krebs JR. Predator detection and avoidance by starlings under differing scenarios of predation risk. Behavioural Ecology 2006, 17(2), 303-309.
- Butler S, Whittingham MJ, Quinn JL, Cresswell W. Time in captivity and individual differences influence experimental success: foraging trials on wild-caught chaffinches. Behaviour 2006, 143(4), 535-548.
- Butler SJ, Whittingham MJ, Quinn JL, Cresswell W. Time in captivity, individual differences and foraging behaviour in wild-caught chaffinches. Behaviour 2006, 143(4), 535-548.
- Devereux CL, Whittingham MJ, Krebs JR, Fernandez-Juricic E, Vickery JA. What attracts birds to newly mown pasture? Decoupling the action of mowing from the provision of short swards. Ibis 2006, 148(2), 302-306.
- Whittingham MJ, Stephens PA, Bradbury RB, Freckleton RP. Why do we still use stepwise modelling in ecology and behaviour?. Journal of Animal Ecology 2006, 75(5), 1182-1189.
- Swetnam RD, Wilson JD, Whittingham MJ, Grice PV. Designing lowland landscapes for farmland birds: scenario testing with GIS. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 2005, 29(3), 275-296.
- Whittingham MJ, Swetnam RD, Wilson JD, Chamberlain DE, Freckleton RP. Habitat selection by yellowhammers Emberiza citrinella on lowland farmland at two spatial scales: Implications for conservation management. Journal of Applied Ecology 2005, 42(2), 270-280.
- Morris AJ, Wilson JD, Whittingham MJ, Bradbury RB. Indirect effects of pesticides on breeding yellowhammer (Emberiza citrinella). Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 2005, 106(1), 1-16.
- Bradbury RB, Hill RA, Mason DC, Hinsley SA, Wilson JD, Balzter H, Anderson GQA, Whittingham MJ, Davenport IJ, Bellamy PE. Modelling relationships between birds and vegetation structure using airborne LiDAR data: A review with case studies from agricultural and woodland environments. Ibis 2005, 147(3), 443-452.
- Bradbury RB, Hill RA, Mason DC, Balzter H, Wilson JD, Hinsley SA, Whittingham MJ, Davenport IJ, Bellamy PE. Modelling relationships between organisms and vegetation structure using airborne LiDAR data. Ibis 2005, 147(3), 443-452.
- Butler SJ, Whittingham MJ, Quinn JL, Cresswell W. Quantifying the interaction between food density and habitat structure in determining patch selection. Animal Behaviour 2005, 69(2), 337-343.
- Butler SJ, Bradbury RB, Whittingham MJ. Stubble height affects the use of stubble fields by farmland birds. Journal of Applied Ecology 2005, 42(3), 469-476.
- Wilson JD, Whittingham MJ, Bradbury RB. The management of crop structure: A general approach to reversing the impacts of agricultural intensification on birds?. Ibis 2005, 147(3), 453-463.
- Pearce-Higgins JW, Yalden DW, Whittingham MJ. Warmer springs advance the breeding phenology of golden plovers Pluvialis apricaria and their prey (Tipulidae). Oecologia 2005, 143(3), 470-476.
- Whittingham MJ, Butler S, Cresswell W, Quinn JL. The effect of limited visibility on vigilance behaviour and speed of predator detection: implications for the conservation of granivorous passerines. Oikos 2004, 106(2), 377-385.
- Whittingham MJ, Evans KL. The effects of habitat structure on predation risk of birds in agricultural landscapes. Ibis 2004, 146(Suppl. 2), 210-220.
- Whittingham MJ, Evans KL. The effects of habitat structure on predation risk of birds in agricultural landscapes. Ibis 2004, 146(S2), 210-220.
- Devereux CL, McCeever C, Benton T, Whittingham MJ. The effects of sward height, density and drainage on starlings and lapwings foraging on grassland habitats. Ibis 2004, 146(Supplement 2), 116-123.
- Barnett PR, Whittingham MJ, Bradbury RB, Wilson JD. Use of unimproved and improved lowland grassland by wintering birds in the UK. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 2004, 102(1), 49-60.
- Whittingham MJ, Wilson JD, Donald PF. Do habitat association models have any generality? Predicting skylark abundance Alauda arvensis in different regions of southern England. Ecography 2003, 26(4), 521-532.
- Cresswell W, Butler S, Whittingham MJ, Quinn JL. Good foragers can also be good detectors. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 2003, 270(1519), 1069-1076.
- Dawkins MS, Cook P, Whittingham MJ, Mansell K, Harper A. What makes free-range broiler chickens range?. Animal Behaviour 2003, 66(1), 151-160.
- Whittingham MJ, Percival SM, Brown AF. Nest-site selection by golden plover: why do shorebirds avoid nesting on slopes?. Journal of Avian Biology 2002, 33(2), 184-191.
- Whittingham MJ, Markland HM. The influence of substrate on the functional response of an avian granivore and its implications for farmland bird conservation. Oecologia 2002, 130(4), 637-644.
- Moorcroft D, Whittingham MJ, Bradbury RB, Wilson JD. The selection of stubble fields by wintering granivorous birds reflects vegetation cover and food abundance. Journal of Applied Ecology 2002, 39(3), 535-547.
- Perkins AJ, Whittingham MJ, Morris AJ, Kyrkos A, Bradbury RB. Use of field margins by foraging yellowhammers Emberiza citrinella. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 2002, 93(1-3), 413-420.
- Hole DG, Whittingham MJ, Bradbury RB, Anderson GQA, Lee PM, Wilson JD, Krebs JR. Widespread local house-sparrow extinctions. Nature 2002, 418(6901), 931-932.
- Whittingham MJ, Bradbury RB, Wilson JD, Morris AJ, Perkins AJ, Siriwardena G. Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs foraging patterns, nestling survival and territory distribution on lowland farmland. Bird Study 2001, 48(3), 257-270.
- Lord A, Waas JR, Innes J, Whittingham MJ. Effects of human approaches to nests of northern New Zealand dotterels. Biological Conservation 2001, 98(2), 233-240.
- Morris AJ, Whittingham MJ, Bradbury RB, Wilson JD, Kyrkos A, Buckingham DL, Evans AD. Foraging habitat selection by yellowhammers Emberiza citrinella nesting in agriculturally contrasting regions in lowland England. Biological Conservation 2001, 101(2), 197-210.
- Whittingham MJ, Percival SM, Brown AF. Habitat selection by golden plover Pluvialis apricaria chicks. Basic and Applied Ecology 2001, 2(2), 177-191.
- Perkins AJ, Whittingham MJ, Bradbury RB, Wilson JD, Morris AJ, Barnett PR. Habitat characteristics affecting use of lowland agricultural grasslands by birds in winter. Biological Conservation 2000, 95(3), 279-294.
- Whittingham MJ, Williams RSR. Notes on morphological differences exhibited by Royal Flycatcher Onychorhynchus coronatus taxa. Cotinga 2000, 13, 14-16.
- Whittingham MJ, Percival SM, Brown AF. Time budgets and foraging of breeding golden plover Pluvialis apricaria. Journal of Applied Ecology 2000, 37(4), 632-646.
- Whittingham MJ, Percival SM, Brown AF. Evaluation of radiotelemetry methods in measuring habitat choice by young Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria chicks. Bird Study 1999, 46(3), 363-368.
- Whittingham MJ, Percival SM, Brown AF. Night-time activity by Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria chicks. Wader Study Group Bulletin 1999, 90, 56-58.
- Whittingham, M.J., Brown, A.F., Drewitt, A. & Rees, S. Sightings of Hyacinth Macaw Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus in the Pantanal, Matto Grosso, Brazil. Cotinga 1998, 10, 66-67.
- Whittingham, M.J. & Atkinson, P.W. A species split in Mexico: sumichrast's and nava's wren Hylorchilus sumichrasti and navai. Cotinga 1996, 5, 20-22.
- Whittingham, M.J. The use of radio telemetry to measure the feeding behaviour of breeding european golden plovers Pluvialis apricaria. Journal of Field Ornithology 1996, 67, 463-470.
- Whittingham, M.J. Observations at the nest of the Pacific Royal Flycatcher Onychorhynchus coronatus occidentalis. Bulletin of the British Ornithological Club 1994, 114, 131-132.
- Atkinson PW, Whittingham MJ, Gomez De Silva Garza H, Kent AM, Maier RT. Notes on the ecology, conservation and taxonomic status of the Hylorchilus wrens. Bird Conservation International 1993, 3(1), 75-85.