Newcastle Magnetic Resonance Centre


Muscle Research


Magnetic resonance provides several important tools for the investigation of human muscle, allowing assessment of structure, metabolism and function.

The Centre has developed advanced methodology for measuring tissue energetics at rest and during periods of muscle exercise (31P MRS) together with 13C measures of muscle glycogen as well as conventional images to measure structure and muscle fat infiltration. These techniques are being applied to a wide range of studies ranging from investigating healthy controls through to patient groups with genetic mutations.

These studies are supported by a variety of funders including:

  • the MRC
  • the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre
  • Diabetes UK

Muscle projects



  • Hollingsworth KG, Higgins DM, McCallum M, Ward L, Coombs A, Straub V. Investigating the quantitative fidelity of prospectively undersampled chemical shift imaging in muscular dystrophy with compressed sensing and parallel imaging reconstruction. Magn Reson Med. 2014 Dec;72(6):1610-9. doi: 10.1002/mrm.25072. Epub 2013 Dec 17.
  • Hollingsworth KG. Quantitative MRI in muscular dystrophy: An indispensable trial endpoint? Neurology. 2014 Sep 9;83(11):956-7. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000000785. Epub 2014 Aug 6.
  • Willis TA, Hollingsworth KG, Coombs A, Sveen ML, Andersen S, Stojkovic T, Eagle M, Mayhew A, de Sousa PL, Dewar L, Morrow JM, Sinclair CD, Thornton JS, Bushby K, Lochmuller H, Hanna MG, Hogrel JY, Carlier PG, Vissing J, Straub V. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2I: a multinational cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2014 Feb 28;9(2):e90377. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090377. eCollection 2014.


  • Hollingsworth KG, Garrood P, Eagle M, Bushby K, Straub V. Magnetic resonance imaging in duchenne muscular dystrophy: Longitudinal assessment of natural history over 18 months. Muscle Nerve. 2013 Oct;48(4):586-8. doi: 10.1002/mus.23879. Epub 2013 Aug 30. PubMed PMID: 23620230.
  • Sinha A, Hollingsworth KG, Ball S, Cheetham T. Improving the vitamin d status of vitamin d deficient adults is associated with improved mitochondrial oxidative function in skeletal muscle.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Mar;98(3):E509-13. doi: 10.1210/jc.2012-3592. Epub 2013 Feb 7.
  • He J, Hollingsworth KG, Newton JL, Blamire AM. Cerebral vascular control is associated with skeletal muscle pH in chronic fatigue syndrome patients both at rest and during dynamic stimulation. NeuroImage 2013 Jan 5;2:168-73. doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2012.12.006. PubMed PMID: 24179772.
  • Ford AH, Duncan GW, Firbank MJ, Yarnall AJ, Khoo TK, Burn DJ, O'Brien JT.Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson's disease: Magnetic resonance imaging study. Mov Disord. 2013 Feb 28. doi: 10.1002/mds.25367. [Epubahead of print] PubMed PMID: 23450684.


  • Kinali M, Arechavala-Gomeza V, Cirak S, Glover A, Guglieri M, Feng L, Hollingsworth KG, Hunt D, Junbluth H, Roper HP, Quinlivin RM, Gosalakkal JA, Jayawant S, Nadeau A, Hughes-Carre L, Manzur AY, Mercuri E, Morgan JE, Straub V, Bushby K, Sewry C, Rutherford M, Muntoni F. Muscle histology va MRI in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Neurology. 2011 Jan 25;76(4):346-53.
  • Hallsworth K, Fattakhova G, Hollingsworth KG, Thoma C, Moore S, Taylor R ,Day CP, Trenell MI. Resistance exercise reduces liver fat and its mediators in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease independent of weight loss. Hepatology Gut 2011;60:1278e1283. doi:10.1136/gut.2011.242073.
  • Yu-Wai-Man P, Trenell MI, Hollingsworth KG, Griffiths PG, PF. C. OPA1 mutations impair mitochondrial function in both pure and complicated dominant optic atrophy Brain. 2011; Apr;134(Pt 4):e164.Epub 2010 Oct 14.
  • Klein A, Jungbluth H, Clement E, Lillis S, Abbs S, Munot P, Pane M, Wraige E, Schara U, Straub V, Mercuri E and Muntoni F. Muscle Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Congenital Myopathies Due to Ryanodine Receptor Type 1 Gene Mutations, Archives of Neurology, 2011, 68(9), pp. 1171-1179.


  • Jones D, Hollingsworth K, Taylor R, Blamire A, Newton J. Abnormalities in pH Handling by Peripheral Muscle and Potential Regulation by the Autonomic Nervous System in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Journal of Internal Medicine 2010; 267(4):394-401.
  • Hollingsworth KG, Newton JL, Robinson L, Taylor R, Blamire AM, Jones DE. Loss of capacity to recover from acidosis in repeat exercise is strongly associated with fatigue in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis J Hepatol 2010;53:155-161.
  • Yu-Wai-Man P, Trenell MI, Hollingsworth KG, Griffiths PG, PF. C. OPA1 mutations impair mitochondrial function in both pure and complicated dominant optic atrophy Brain. 2010(Oct. 14).


  • Garrood P, Hollingsworth K, Eagle M, Aribisala B, Birchall D, Bushby K, et al. MR imaging in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: quantification of T1-weighted signal, contrast uptake and the effects of exercise. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 2009 Nov;30(5):1130-8.
  • Stevenson EJ TP, Thomas K, Smith F, Brand-Miller J, Trenell MI. Dietary glycemic index influences lipid oxidation but not muscle or liver glycogen oxidation during exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2009; 296(5):E1140-7. Epub 2009 Feb 17.


  • Trenell MI, Thelwall P, Thomas K, Stevenson E. Effect of high and low glycaemic index diets on skeletal muscle and liver substrate storage and utilisation during exercise Diabetologia 2008;51 248.
  • Hollingsworth KG, Newton JL, Taylor R, McDonald C, Palmer JM, Blamire AM, et al. Pilot study of peripheral muscle function in primary biliary cirrhosis: potential implications for fatigue pathogenesis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008 Sep;6(9):1041-8.
  • Trenell MI, Stevenson E, Stockmann K, Brand-Miller J. Effect of high and low glycaemic index recovery diets on intramuscular lipid oxidation during aerobic exercise. British Journal of Nutrition. 2008 Feb;99(2):326-32. Epub 2007 Aug 15.


  • Garrood P, Hollingsworth K, Thelwall P, Birchall D, Eagle M, Bushby K, et al. MRI in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: Quantification of fat infiltration and gadolinium uptake using whole-muscle regions of interest. Neuromuscular Disorders 2007; 17(9-10):816-7.