Newcastle Magnetic Resonance Centre


Cardiovascular Research


Cardiovascular magnetic resonance, over the last decade or so, has assumed a key role in the diagnosis, monitoring and prognostic evaluation of heart disease.

The wealth of possible new information is tempered by the challenges posed by cardiac and respiratory motion and practical and timely data acquisition.

The Centre’s remit to develop new magnetic resonance techniques in collaboration with clinical researchers and commercial partners has led to the development of specialist expertise in the measurement of myocardial energetics with 31-phosphate magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

Functional assessment with cardiac tagging techniques and more recently four dimensional flow imaging have also created an exciting opportunity to gain novel insights into cardiovascular pathophysiology.

MRI provides a unique window into cardiac and cardiovascular function. Cardiac methods developed during the last 16 years include:

  • Detailed assessment of 3D cardiac morphology, systolic and diastolic function
  • Quantification of myocardial scarring and microvascular obstruction
  • Tagging methods to assess alterations in circumferential and longitudinal wall motion
  • Cardiac relaxometry (T1, T2 relaxation time measurement) to assess extracellular volume and oedema
  • 4D flow methods to examine vortex development and atrial flow

For further information about cardiac methods and to discuss ideas for cardiovascular research projects, please contact Dr Kieren Hollingsworth.

View Dr Kieren Hollingworth and Dr Jehill Parikh's staff profile.


The methods have been applied collaboratively in a diverse range of academic studies and clinical trials:


  • The effect of levothyroxine on LV function in subclinical hypothyroidism (with Dr Salman Razvi, JAMA 2020)
  • Atrial 4D flow rotation and the role of pulmonary vein flows in healthy volunteers and subjects with patent foramen ovale (with Dr Louise Coats and Dr Lian Gan, Physiological Measurement 2020 and 2021, PLOS One 2017)
  • The metabolic effects of bezafibrate in mitochondrial diseases (with Prof Patick Chinnery, EMBO Mol Med 2020)
  • The relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiac function and autonomic function (with Profs Quentin Anstee and Mike Trenell, J Hepatol 2019 and J Hepatol 2013)
  • The association between cardiac high-energy metabolism and cardiac power in healthy women (with Dr Djordje Jakovjlevic, Heart 2018)
  • Measuring the effect of high-intensity intermittent exercise regimes on cardiac structure and function in type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (with Dr Djordje Jakovklevic, Prof Mike Trenell, Diabetologia 2016 and Clin Sci 2015).
  • Normal age-related changes in left ventricular function as measured by cardiac energetics, cardiac wall motion and morphology, examining the role of afterload, subendocardial dysfunction and hypertension (with Dr Guy MacGowan, Int J Cardiol 2016)
  • Concentric hypertrophic remodelling and subendocardial dysfunction in mitochondrial DNA point mutation carriers (with Profs Grainne Gorman and Mike Trenell, Int J. Cardiol. 2013, EHJ Cardiovasc Imaging 2013, Neuromusc. Disord. 2012)
  • The relationship between subepicardial dysfunction and global left ventricular systolic impairement in patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2I (with Prof Volker Straub, Eur J Heart Failure, 2013)



  • Jesuthasan, A., S. Zhyzhneuskaya, C. Peters, A. C. Barnes, K. G. Hollingsworth, N. Sattar, M. E. J. Lean, R. Taylor, and A. H. Al-Mrabeh. "Sex Differences in Intraorgan Fat Levels and Hepatic Lipid Metabolism: Implications for Cardiovascular Health and Remission of Type 2 Diabetes after Dietary Weight Loss." [In eng]. Diabetologia 65, no. 1 (Jan 2022): 226-33.


  • Wibowo, P. G., S. J. Charman, N. C. Okwose, L. Velicki, D. Popovic, K. G. Hollingsworth, G. A. MacGowan, and D. G. Jakovljevic. "Association between Cardiac High-Energy Phosphate Metabolism and Whole Body Metabolism in Healthy Female Adults." [In eng]. Physiol Res  (May 12 2021).
  • Gbinigie, H., L. Coats, J. D. Parikh, K. G. Hollingsworth, and L. Gan. "A 4d Flow Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Study of Flow Asymmetry and Haemodynamic Quantity Correlations in the Pulmonary Artery." [In eng]. Physiol Meas 42, no. 2 (Mar 11 2021): 025005.


  • Steele, H., A. Gomez-Duran, A. Pyle, S. Hopton, J. Newman, R. J. Stefanetti, S. J. Charman, et al. "Metabolic Effects of Bezafibrate in Mitochondrial Disease." [In eng]. EMBO Mol Med 12, no. 3 (Mar 6 2020): e11589.
  • Dewhurst, P., L. Coats, J. D. Parikh, K. G. Hollingsworth, and L. Gan. "The Role of Flow Rotation in the Adult Right Atrium: A 4d Flow Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Study." [In eng]. Physiol Meas 41, no. 3 (Apr 16 2020): 035007.
  • Jabbar, A., L. Ingoe, S. Junejo, P. Carey, C. Addison, H. Thomas, J. D. Parikh, et al. "Effect of Levothyroxine on Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction in Patients with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Randomized Clinical Trial." [In eng]. Jama 324, no. 3 (Jul 21 2020): 249-58.



  • Parikh, J. D., K. G. Hollingsworth, D. Wallace, A. M. Blamire, and G. A. MacGowan. "Left Ventricular Functional, Structural and Energetic Effects of Normal Aging: Comparison with Hypertension." [In eng]. PLoS One 12, no. 5 (2017): e0177404.


  • Parikh JD, Kakarla J, Keavney B, O'Sullivan JJ, Ford GA, Blamire AM, Hollingsworth KG, Coats L. 4D flow MRI assessment of right atrial flow patterns in the normal heart - influence of caval vein arrangement and implications for the patent foramen ovale. PLoS One. 2017 Mar 10;12(3):e0173046. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0173046. eCollection 2017. 
  • MacGowan GA, Parikh JD, Hollingsworth KG. Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Heart: Looking Into the Layers of the Myocardium.  J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Feb 14;69(6):677-678. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.10.080.
  • Parikh, J. D., K. G. Hollingsworth, D. Wallace, A. M. Blamire, and G. A. MacGowan. "Left Ventricular Functional, Structural and Energetic Effects of Normal Aging: Comparison with Hypertension." [In eng]. PLoS One 12, no. 5 (2017): e0177404.


  • Parikh JD, Hollingsworth KG, Wallace D, Blamire AM, MacGowan GA. Normal age-related changes in left ventricular function: Role of afterload and subendocardial dysfunction. Int J Cardiol. 2016 Nov 15;223:306-312. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.07.252. Epub 2016 Jul 30.
  • Perkins RE, Hollingsworth KG, Eggett C, MacGowan GA, Bates MG, Trenell MI, Jakovljevic DG. Relationship between bioreactance and magnetic resonance imaging stroke volumes. Br J Anaesth. 2016 Jul;117(1):134-6. doi: 10.1093/bja/aew164.
  • Parikh JD, Hollingsworth KG, Kunadian V, Blamire AM, MacGowan GA, Measurement of pulse wave velocity in normal ageing: comparison of Vicorder and magnetic resonance phase contrast imaging. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, 2016 Feb 19;16(1):50. doi: 10.1186/s12872-016-0224-4.
  • Cassidy S, Thoma C, Hallsworth K, Parikh JD, Hollingsworth KG, Taylor R, Jakovljevic DG, Trenell MI. High intensity intermittent exercise improves cardiac structure and function and reduces liver fat in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial. Diabetologia. 2016 Jan;59(1):56-66. doi: 10.1007/s00125-015-3741-2. Epub 2015 Sep 9. 


  • Jakovljevic DG, Papakonstantinou L, Blamire AM, MacGowan GA, Taylor R, Hollingsworth KG, Trenell MI. Effect of Physical Activity on Age-Related Changes in Cardiac Function and Performance in Women. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2015 doi:10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.114.002086.
  • Madathil A, Hollingsworth KG, Blamire AM, Razvi S, Newton JL, Taylor R, Weaver JU. Levothyroxine improves abnormal cardiac bioenergetics in subclinical hypothyroidism: a cardiac magnetic resonance spectroscopic study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Apr;100(4):E607-10. doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-2942. Epub 2014 Dec 26. PMID: 25541742.
  • Hallsworth K, Thoma C, Hollingsworth KG, Cassidy S, Anstee Q M, Day C P, Trenell M I. Modified high-intensity interval training reduces liver fat and improves cardiac function in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A randomised controlled trial. Clin Sci (Lond). 2015 Dec;129(12):1097-105. doi: 10.1042/CS20150308. Epub 2015 Aug 11.
  • Cassidy S, Hallsworth K, Thoma C, MacGowan GA, Hollingsworth KG, Day CP, Taylor R, Jakovljevic DG, Trenell MI. Cardiac structure and function are altered in Type 2 diabetes and Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and associate with glycemic control. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2015 Feb 13;14:23. doi: 10.1186/s12933-015-0187-2.


  • Moore SA, Hallsworth K, Jakovljevic DG, Blamire AM, He J, Ford GA, Rochester L, Trenell MI. Effects of Community Exercise Therapy on Metabolic, Brain, Physical, and Cognitive Function Following Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2014 Dec 23. pii: 1545968314562116. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 25538152.


  • Hollingsworth KG, Willis TA, Bates MG, Dixon BJ, Lochmüller H, Bushby K, Bourke J, Macgowan GA, Straub V. Subepicardial dysfunction leads to global left ventricular systolic impairment in patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2I. Eur J Heart Fail. 2013 Apr 10. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Hallsworth K, Hollingsworth KG, Thoma C, Jakovljevic D, Macgowan GA, Anstee QM, Taylor R, Day CP, Trenell MI. Cardiac structure and function are altered in adults with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. J Hepatol. 2012 Nov 22. pii: S0168-8278(12)00884-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2012.11.015. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Bates, M. G., J. H. Newman, D. G. Jakovljevic, K. G. Hollingsworth, C. L. Alston, P. Zalewski, J. J. Klawe, et al. "Defining Cardiac Adaptations and Safety of Endurance Training in Patients with M.3243a>G-Related Mitochondrial Disease." [In eng]. Int J Cardiol 168, no. 4 (Oct 9 2013): 3599-608.
  • Bates, M. G., K. G. Hollingsworth, J. H. Newman, D. G. Jakovljevic, A. M. Blamire, G. A. MacGowan, B. D. Keavney, et al. "Concentric Hypertrophic Remodelling and Subendocardial Dysfunction in Mitochondrial DNA Point Mutation Carriers." [In eng]. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 14, no. 7 (Jul 2013): 650-8.


  • Hollingsworth KG, Hodgson T, MacGowan GA, Blamire AM, Newton JL. Impaired cardiac function in chronic fatigue syndrome measured using magnetic resonance cardiac tagging. Journal of Internal Medicine. 2012 Mar;271(3):264-70.
  • Hollingsworth KG, Gorman GS, Trenell MI, McFarland R, Taylor RW, Turnbull DM, Macgowan GA, Blamire AM, Chinnery PF. Cardiomyopathy is common in patients with the mitochondrial DNA m.3243A>G mutation and correlates with mutation load. Neuromuscul Disord. 2012 Jul;22(7):592-6. Epub 2012 Apr 17. PMID:22513320
  • Hollingsworth KG, Macgowan GA, Morris L, Bates MG, Taylor R, Jones DE, Newton JL, Blamire AM. Cardiac torsion-strain relationships in fatigued Primary Biliary Cirrhosis patients show accelerated ageing: a pilot cross-sectional study. J Appl Physiol. 2012 Jun;112(12):2043-8. Epub 2012 Mar 29.
  • Hollingsworth KG, Blamire AM, Keavney BD, Macgowan GA. Left ventricular torsion, energetics, and diastolic function in normal human aging. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2012 Feb;302(4):H885-92. Epub 2011 Dec 16. PMID: 22180656 
  • Bates MG, Hollingsworth KG, Newman JH, Jakovljevic DG, Blamire AM, Macgowan GA, Keavney BD, Chinnery PF, Turnbull DM, Taylor RW, Trenell MI, Gorman GS. Concentric hypertrophic remodelling and subendocardial dysfunction in mitochondrial DNA point mutation carriers. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2012 Nov 4. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Hollingsworth KG, de Sousa PL, Straub V, Carlier PG. Towards harmonization of protocols for MRI outcome measures in skeletal muscle studies: consensus recommendations from two TREAT-NMD NMR workshops, 2 May 2010, Stockholm, Sweden, 1-2 October 2009, Paris, France. Neuromuscul Disord. 2012 Oct 1;22 Suppl 2:S54-67. doi: 10.1016/j.nmd.2012.06.005.PMID:22980769