Professor Andrew Newman
Prof of Cultural Gerontology
- Email: email@example.com
- Telephone: +44 (0) 191 208 7426
- Fax: +44 (0) 191 208 5564
I joined the University in 1992 to assist in setting up the MA in Museum Studies programme. Prior to this I had responsibility for the geological collections at the Great North Museum: Hancock, Newcastle upon Tyne, where I had worked since 1983.
Roles and Responsibilities
- Chair, University Safety Committee (2008 –)
- Chair of ICCHS Staff Student Committee (2003 – 2005 and 2008)
- Chair BOE MCH UG and PG programmes (2016 - )
- Chair ICCHS Board of Examiners (2009 –2016)
- Deputy Director of the School of Arts and Cultures (January 2007 – September 2008)
- Director of ICCHS (January 2006 – September 2008)
- DPD for ICCHS programmes (2003 – 2005)
- ICCHS Examinations Officer and Chair Board of Examiners (1998 – 2003)
- Member of Faculty Teaching and Learning Committee (2005 - 2009)
- Director of Teaching and Learning, School of Arts and Cultures (2005 - 2009)
- Member of School Executive Committee (2005 - 2009) (2016 - 2017)
- Museums Association, 1990, Diploma Natural Sciences AMA by examination
- University of Leicester, 1982-83, Graduate Certificate in Museum Studies (Geological option)
- University of Leicester, 1978-81, BSC (Hons.) Combined Science. (Geology, Physical Geography, History of Science)
- 2006 University of Newcastle upon Tyne, International Centre for Cultural and Heritage Studies,Senior Lecturer in Museum Studies
- 1997 University of Newcastle upon Tyne, International Centre for Cultural and Heritage Studies, Lecturer in Museum Studies
- 1995 University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Department of Archaeology, Research Officer in Museum Studies
- 1992 University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Department of Archaeology, Research Associate in Museum Studies
- 1983-1992 Hancock Museum, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, Geologist
- British Society of Gerontology
- Museums Association
- Mountain/road bikes
- Driving my Caterham 7 Roadsport
Peer review colleges of AHRC (2005-2016) and ESRC (since 2008).
My current research uses culture to provide new perspectives on critical themes within cultural gerontology such as resilience; connectivity and community participation; ageing well at home and in community environments; inclusion and participation in the community, and; healthy ageing and living better for longer. The timeliness and importance of this work is illustrated by the increasing numbers of older people. Worldwide numbers those over 65 are projected to increase from 390 million now to 800 million by 2025 and in the UK to have doubled to around 19 million by 2050.
I have been involved in a number of research projects funded by AHRC, ESRC, and MRC. The most recent of which explores the engagement of older people with the arts. I have worked on and led projects worth over £3.7M during the last five years.
My main projects are Dementia and Imaginationhttp://dementiaandimagination.org.uk/ and Mapping Contemporary Art in the Heritage Experience: Creation, Consumption and Exchange http://research.ncl.ac.uk/mcahe
Mapping Contemporary Art in the Heritage Experience: Creation, Consumption and Exchange
Co-investigator – AHRC, an interdisciplinary research project that will critically examine the role and practice of temporary visual art commissioning within heritage properties in Britain, £775,000, 2016-19.
The role of creative interventions in fostering connectivity and resilience in older people Co-investigator – AHRC Connected Communities Summit 2013 follow-up fund, Exploring how creative interventions can help develop connectivity and resilience for older people. £40,000, 2014
Dementia and Imagination Co-investigator - AHRC Communities, Cultures, Health and Wellbeing research grant. Investigating the use of the visual arts to enrich the lives of older people with dementia through reconnecting them with their communities. £1.5M, 2013-2017
Contemporary visual art and identity construction – wellbeing amongst older people Principal investigator – a project exploring how the lives of older people can be improved by examining their use of contemporary visual art for identity construction practices funded by the New Dynamics of Ageing Programme (www.newdynamics.group.shef.ac.uk/). £260K, 2009-2011
Contemporary visual art and the wellbeing of older people: policy and practice Principal investigator – This project builds upon our New Dynamics of Ageing programme (NDA) funded research. It aims to develop research-informed arts policy and arts interventions designed to improve the wellbeing of older people. £125K, 2012 to 2013
Research for Community Heritage – North East England – phase 1 Principal investigator - a project that links University research with heritage groups in NE England funded by AHRC under the Connected Communities Programme. £40K, 2012 to 2013
Research for Community Heritage – North East England – phase 2 Principal investigator - a project that assists local community groups in implementing projects that are funded by the HLF under their ‘All our Stories’ funding stream. Funded by AHRC under the Connected Communities programme. £60K, 2013 to 2014
Ageing Creatively Co-investigator for a pilot study to explore the relation of creative arts interventions to wellbeing in later life, funded from the Lifelong Health and Wellbeing programme through the Medical Research Council. £260K, 2010-2013
Newman, A. 2017 Narrative identity and resilience for people in later life with dementia living in care homes: The role of visual arts enrichment activities. Dementia and Cultural Narrative Symposium Aston University December 2017
Newman, A. 2017 The connectivity and social capital of people in later life living with dementia, British Society of Gerontology conference, University of Swansea, July 2017
Newman, A. and Goulding, A., 2016 Qualitative data collection: Learning from Dementia and Imagination, Gerontological Society of America, Annual Scientific Meeting November 16-20, New Orleans, Louisiana.
Newman, A., 2016 The impact of visual arts interventions on the resilience of older people with dementia.British Society of Gerontology conference University of Stirling, July 2016
Newman, A. 2015 Wellbeing in older people through the visual arts, Creative Ageing, Australian Association of Arts and Health, Sydney, Australia, 25-27 August 2015
Newman, A. 2015 Dementia and Imagination, Creative Ageing, Australian Association of Arts and Health, Sydney, Australia, 25-27 August 2015
Newman, A. and Goulding, A. 2015 Developing social support amongst older people through the consumption of art, British Society of Gerontology conference Newcastle upon Tyne, July 2015
Goulding A. and Newman A., 2014 The development of resilience through creative interventions 8th International Conference of the European Network of Ageing Studies – Cultural Gerontology, Meaning and Culture(s): Exploring the Life Course, 10-12 April 2014, Galway.
Newman, A. 2014 Engaging with contemporary visual art: Maintaining health and well-being Oxford Institute of Ageing Studies, Seminar Series, February 2014
Goulding, A. and & Newman A., 2013, Follow-on from New Dynamics of Ageing project, The Art of Good Health and Wellbeing, 5th Annual International Arts and Health Conference,12 - 14 November 2013, College of Fine Arts (COFA), University of NSW and the Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
Newman 2013, Heritage and Museums: Ethics, Values and Communities seminar at Warwick University in November
Newman, A. & Goulding, A. 2013, Engaging with contemporary visual art: Maintaining health and well-being, British Society of Gerontology Annual Meeting, 11-13 September
Newman, A. & Goulding, A. 2013, Contemporary visual art and Identity construction – wellbeing amongst older people AHRC Cultural Value seminar, London, February 2013
Goulding, A. & Newman, A. 2012, Contemporary visual arts and the wellbeing of older adults: policy and Practice, British Society of Gerontologists Annual Meeting, 11-13 July
Newman, A. & Goulding, A. 2011The role of social networks in determining the nature of older people’s engagement with contemporary visual art and its relationship to wellbeing. 64th Annual scientific meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, Boston, USA, 18-22, November 2011
Newman, A. & Goulding, A. 2011 The impact of engagement with contemporary visual art on the wellbeing of older adults. VII EUROPEAN INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS, HEALTHY AND ACTIVE AGEING FOR ALL EUROPEANS "II", Bologna, Italy, April 2011, peer reviewed paper.
Newman, A. 2010 Imagining the social impact of museums and galleries: interrogating policy through an empirical study, 6th International Conference on Cultural Policy Research, Jyväskylä, Finland, 24 - 27 August 2010 – peer reviewed paper
Newman, A. 2010 Contemporary visual art and identity construction – Wellbeing amongst older people, British Society of Gerontology, 39th Annual Conference, Identities , Care and Everyday Life, 6-8 July Brunel University – peer reviewed paper
Newman, A. 2009 Theorising the social role of museums/galleries: consequences for policy, Department of Public Policy, De Montfort University, Leicester, Seminar series, Wednesday 16th December 2009, Invited paper
Newman, A. 2009 Renaissance Research and Evaluation Network, Tuesday 24th November 2009, Whitechapel Art Gallery, London, Invited presentation
Newman, A. 2009 Contemporary visual art and identity construction: well being amongst older people, invited presentation, Humanities Discourse and the Passing Life seminar, Saturday 11th November 2009. Claus Moser Research Centre, Keele University
Newman, A. 2009 Theorising the social role of museums: the consequences for Social Exclusion Policy, Museums, the cultural industries and social inclusion: outlining and unearthing alternative perspectives, Invited paper, Tuesday 20th October 2009, Sackler Centre, Victoria and Albert Museum, London, Supported by ESRC and the Department for Culture, Media and Sport
Newman, A. 2009, invited participant, social return on investment seminar, Museums, Libraries and Archives Council, Tuesday 2nd June 2009, Wellcome Collection Conference Centre, London
Newman, A. 2008 ‘Museums and Migration a Question of Identity', Museums Immigration and Interculturality', Invited keynote address, Sant Adrià de Besòs, Barcelona, October 1st to 3rd 2008, UNESCO and Migration Museum Network.
Newman, A. 2008, ‘Meaning-making and identity: How museums and galleries combat social exclusion', Invited address – Curating for the Future Conference, invited paper, Manchester, September 2008
Newman A. 2008, invited panel member Museums and Refugees – Keeping Cultures Conference – session – Measuring Social Impact of Work with New Communities – Museum of Docklands 13-14 March 2008
Newman, A. 2008, invited address – Seminar on the Impact of Museums, National Museum Directors Conference, Tate Britain 18th March 2008
Newman, A. 2008, invited address – Museums, Libraries and Archive Council Seminar – Linking Value Measurement to Business and Income Model Innovation: Academic Research into Sustainability of the UK Cultural Sector, British Library, London, May 2008
Newman, A, 2007 ‘The Impact of Participation in Gallery Education Activities on Schoolchildren's Human, Social and Cultural Capital’, European and International Symposium on Research Carried Out into Evaluating the Impact of Arts and Cultural Education on Children and Young People, Paris, Pompidou Centre, January
Newman, A, 2007 ‘The impact on over 50s people of participation in activities related to British Art Show 6’, Access to Heritage AHRC funded seminar, Newcastle upon Tyne, 16 -17 January
Newman, A, 2007 ‘Social Stratification and Cultural Consumption – Policy Implications of Recent Research’, ESRC funded seminar - invited response, City University, London, 3 May
Newman, A, 2007 ‘Generic Learning Outcomes/Generic Social Outcomes’, Museums Association Conference, Glasgow, October (invited paper)
Newman, A, 2007 ‘The impact on over 50s people of participation in activities related to British Art Show 6’, Museums Association Conference, Glasgow, October (invited paper)
Newman, A, 2006 ‘Instrumental Museums and Gallery Policy in the UK: Origins and consequence for Practice’, invited address – peer reviewed paper to Fourth International Conference on Cultural Policy Research, Vienna, 12-16 July
I am happy to supervise students in the area of cultural gerontology, the consumption of museums and galleries (capital, citizenship, identity construction) and learning in museums and art galleries.
I am principal supervisor to the following students:
Anna Goulding, Understanding the relationship between older people’ engagement with contemporary art galleries and wellbeing
Adam Goldwater, Where’s the Learning? School-Museum Partnerships: Co-expertise and the Co-production of Learning for Primary School Aged Children.
Bethany Rex, In what way do current participatory initiatives in the museum sector respond to the localism agenda?
Philip Sabelli, A Study of the Integration of Museum Collections in University History Programs
Member of ESRC Peer Review College (since 2010)
Member of AHRC Peer Review College (since 2005)
Chair AHRC Collaborative Doctoral Awards Scheme panel meetings 2013, 2014
Member of AHRC Collaborative Doctoral Awards Panel C 2012
Member of AHRC Collaborative Skills Development 2012: Organisation-led proposals
Member of AHRC Studentship panel for 2009
Member of AHRC Museums, Galleries and Archives, Commissioning Panel 2008
Editorial Board Member of the International Journal of Heritage Studies
Editorial Board Member of Museum and Society
Editorial Board Member of Cultural Trends
External Examiner, Department of Archaeology, University of Durham (2005-2008)
External Examiner, Centre for Cultural Policy Studies, University of Warwick (2014-)
In addition to the above.
Paul Hamlyn Foundation to undertake a longitudinal evaluation of a new special initiative, Art Works: Developing Practice in Participatory Settings. Value £50,000
Non-users of Libraries, Museums and Arts in County Durham, Museums, Libraries and Archive Council, Value £9982
Sense of Place and Social Capital and the Historic Environment RES/0322/7236, English Heritage, Value. £66,140
Arts and Humanities Research Council – Museum and Gallery Workshops - to explore issues surrounding instrumental museum and gallery policy. Value £14,000
En-quire national research programme (phase 3), which will explore issues around pedagogical skill sharing amongst artists and the impact of artists’ involvement in educational projects with young people. Value £25,000
Artists' Insights research project (funded by Arts Council England and the Museums Libraries and Archives Council) into the practices, and the learning outcomes and impact, of writers and visual artists working with young people and educators/facilitators in cultural sites and schools. Value: £50,000
Five Arts Cities research project (funded by Arts Council England and Channel 5) to investigate the impact on older visitors of participation in gallery events. Value: £3,000
En-quire national research programme (phases 1 and 2), which has the aim of exploring, assessing and articulating the special learning benefits to young people of working with contemporary art and the gallery space. The project is funded by DCMS and DfES and managed by Engage, the national organisation for gallery education in association with the Arts Council of England. Value: £21,000(www.engage.org/projects/enquire.aspx)
Department for Education and Skills funded evaluation of the Museums and Galleries Education Programme Phase 2 £7500 2003ESRC the contribution of museums to the inclusive community: an exploratory study £40,000 2001
Postgraduate Taught Teaching
I am the module leader for:
MCH8552 Working on a Project in the Heritage sector
MCH 8004 Caring for collections
I also contribute to a range of MCH campus-based postgraduate modules in Museums, Galleries and Heritage.
I supervise students taking COM 3073
- Newman A, Davenport B, Howson-Griffiths T. Narrative identity and resilience for people in later life with dementia living in care homes: The role of visual arts enrichment activities. In: Goulding, A; Davenport, B; Newman, A, ed. Resilience and Ageing: Creativity, Culture and Community. Bristol: Policy Press, 2018. In Press.
- Newman A, Goulding A. Narrative representations of the self: Older adults' encounters with contemporary visual art. In: Walker A, ed. New Science of Ageing. Bristol: Policy Press, 2018. In Press.
- Goulding A, Davenport B, Newman A, ed. Resilience and ageing: creativity, culture and community. Bristol: Policy Press, 2018. In Press.
- Windle G, Joling K, Howson T, Woods B, Jones Catrin, Newman A, Parkinson C. The impact of a visual arts program on quality of life, communication, and well-being of people living with dementia: a mixed-methods longitudinal investigation. International Psychogeriatrics 2018, 30(3), 409-423.
- Newman A, Goulding A, Davenport B, Windle G. The role of the visual arts in the resilience of people living with dementia in care homes . Ageing and Society 2018, 45(11), 5609-5616.
- Windle G, Gregory S, Howson-Griffiths T, Newman A, O'Brian D, Goulding A. Exploring the theoretical foundations of visual art programmes for people living with dementia. Dementia 2017, Epub ahead of print.
- Newman A, Baber M, O'Brien D, Goulding A, Jones CH, Howson T, Jones C, Parkinson C, Taylor K, Tischler V, Windle G. Carrying out research across the arts and humanities and social sciences: Developing the methodology for Dementia and Imagination. Cultural Trends 2016, 25(4), 218-232.
- Windle G, Newman A, Woods B, O'Brien D, Baber M, Hounsome H, Parkinson C, Tischler V. Dementia and Imagination: a mixed-methods protocol for arts and science research. BMJ Open 2016, 6(11), e011634.
- Newman A. Qualitative data collection - learning from Dementia and imagination. In: 2016 GSA Annual Scientific Meeting. 2016, New Orleans: Oxford University Press.
- Newman A, Goulding A, Whitehead C. Contemporary visual art and the construction of identity: maintenance and revision processes in older adults. International Journal of Heritage Studies 2014, 20(4), 432-453.
- Arber S, Bowling A, Creech A, Duncan M, Goulding A, Gyi D, Hallam S, Haslam C, Kazi A, Lloyd L, Lord J, Murphy M, Newman A, Phillips AC, Twumasi R, Upton J. Maintaining health and wellbeing: Overcoming barriers to healthy ageing. In: The New Science of Ageing. Bristol: Policy Press, 2014, pp.113-154.
- Vera-Sanso P, Barrientos A, Damodaran L, Gilhooly G, Goulding A, Hennessy C, Means R, Murray M, Newman A, Olphert O, Sandhu J, Tew P, Thompson J, Victor C, Walford N. Participation and social connectivity. In: Walker, A, ed. New Science of Ageing. Bristol, UK: Policy Press, 2014, pp.181-208.
- Murray M, Amigoni D, Bernard M, Crummett A, Goulding A, Munro L, Newman A, Rezzano J, Rickett M, Tew P, Warren L. Understanding and transforming ageing through the arts. In: Walker A, ed. New Science of Ageing. Poole: Policy Press, 2014, pp.77-112.
- Windle G, Gregory S, Newman A, Goulding A, O'Brien D, Parkinson C. Understanding the impact of visual arts interventions for people living with dementia: A realist review protocol. Systematic Reviews 2014, 3(1), 91.
- Newman A, Goulding A, Whitehead C. How cultural capital, habitus and class influence the responses of older adults to the field of contemporary visual art. Poetics 2013, 41(5), 456-480.
- Newman A. Imagining the social impact of museums and galleries: interrogating cultural policy through an empirical study. International Journal of Cultural Policy 2013, 19(1), 120-137.
- Goulding A, Newman A. Contemporary Visual Art and Identity Construction - Exploring Wellbeing Amongst Older People. Engage Arts and Health Special Issue 2012, 30(2), 67-76.
- Newman A, Goulding A, Whitehead C. The Consumption of Contemporary Visual Art: Identity Formation in Late Adulthood. Cultural Trends 2012, 21(1), 29-45.
- Buckley B, Goulding A, Newman A, Pringle E, Whitehead C. Artists, Young people and Galleries, Artists' Insights. Engage Journal 2011, 27, 12-26.
- Newman A, Goulding A. The impact of engagement with contemporary visual art on the wellbeing of older adults. In: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research: VII European congress, Healthy and active ageing for all Europeans - II. 2011, Bologna, Italy: Editrice Kurtis s.r.l.
- Newman A, Goulding AM. The role of social networks in determining the nature of older people's engagement with contemporary visual art and its relationship to wellbeing. In: GSA Annual Scientific Meeting. 2011, San Diego, California, USA: Oxford University Press.
- Newman A. Measuring the value of culture: methods and examples in cultural economics. Leisure Studies 2010, 29(1), 116-118.
- Graham H, Mason R, Newman A. Literature Review: Historic Environment, Sense of Place, and Social Capital. English Heritage, 2009.
- Goulding A, Newman A, Whitehead C. Evaluation of the London Museums Hub Learning Programme, Unpublished research report to London Museums Hub. (48,200 words). 2008.
- Goulding A, Newman A, Whitehead C. Every Child Matters: Report on the London Museums Hub’s contribution to the Every Child Matters agenda. London: London Museums Hub, 2008.
- Newman A, Whitehead C. Impact de la participation aux activités pédagogiques d’une galerie sur le capital humaine, social et culturel des élèves. In: Évaluer les effets de l’éducation artistique et culturelle. Paris: Centre Georges Pompidou ; La Documentation française, 2008, pp.441-449.
- Goulding A, Newman A, Whitehead C. North East Cluster Phase 2.1 Research Report: artistic and pedagogical skill-sharing between teachers and artists. In: Taylor B, ed. Inspiring Learning in Galleries 02: Research Reports. London: Engage, 2008, pp.92-117.
- Goulding A, Newman A, Whitehead C. North East Cluster Phase 2.2 Research Report: artists working in gallery education contexts with children and young people. In: Taylor B, ed. Inspiring Learning in Galleries 02: Research Reports. London: Engage, 2008.
- Goulding A, Newman A, Whitehead C. North East cluster research report. In: Taylor B; Houghton N, ed. Inspiring Learning in Galleries. London: Engage, 2008.
- Newman A, Selwood S (eds.). Special issue on instrumental museum and gallery policy. Cultural Trends 2008, 17(4), 207-343.
- Buckley B, Goulding A, Newman A, Pringle E, Whitehead C. Artists’ Insights: A study of the practices, and the learning outcomes and impact, of visual artists working with young people and educators/facilitators in art gallery contexts, Unpublished report to Arts Council England, (61,800 words). 2007.
- Newman A. The Social Stratification of Cultural Consumption: Some Policy Implications of a Research Project - response 4. Cultural Trends 2007, 16(4), 397-399.
- Newman A, Whitehead C. Fivearts Cities: an evaluative report on the impact on over 50s people of participation in activities related to British Art Show 6. Gateshead, UK: BALTIC Centre for Contemporary Art, 2006.
- Newman A, Whitehead C. North East Cluster Research Report. In: Taylor, B, ed. Inspiring Learning in Galleries. London: Engage, 2006, pp.122-155.
- Newman A, Whitehead C. North East England Phase 2.0. Engage, 2006.
- Newman A, McLean F. The Impact of Museums on Identity. International Journal of Heritage Studies 2006, 12(1), 49-68.
- Newman A. Chapter 18: Understanding the social impact of museums, galleries and heritage through the concept of capital. In: Corsane, G, ed. Heritage, Museums and Galleries: An Introductory Reader. London: Routledge, 2005, pp.228-237.
- Newman A, McLean F, Urquhart G. Museums and the active citizen: Tackling the problems of social exclusion. Citizenship Studies 2005, 9(1), 41-57.
- Newman A, McLean F. Capital and the Museum Experience. International Journal of Cultural Studies 2004, 7(4), 480-498.
- Newman A. Hutton, William (1797–1860). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2004. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/14318.
- Newman A, Mclean F. Presumption, policy and practice: the use of museums and galleries as agents of social inclusion in Great Britain. International Journal of Cultural Policy 2004, 10(2), 167-181.
- Newman A, Mclean F (eds.). Special issue on heritage and social exclusion. International Journal of Heritage Studies 2004, 10(1), 3-110.
- Stanley J, Galloway S, Huddleston P, Grewcrock C, Muir F, Newman A, Clive S. The Impact of Phase 2 of the Museums and Galleries Education Programme. Department for Education and Skills, 2004. Available at: http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/docbank/index.cfm?id=7629.
- Newman A, McLean F. Architectures of inclusion, museums galleries and inclusive communities. In: Sandell, R, ed. Museums, Society, Inequality. London: Routledge, 2002, pp.56-68.
- Newman A. Feelgood factor. Museums Journal 2002, 102(3), 28-31.
- Newman A. Social exclusion zone. Museums Journal 2001, 101(9).
- Newman A, McLean F. Museums as agents of social inclusion. Transactions of the Museum Professionals Group 2000, 32, 3-8.
- Newman A. Evaluating a website for museums. Museum Practice 1999, (11), 45-47.
- Newman A. Pyrite Oxidation and Museum Collections. Science Technology 1999, 44, 44-49.
- Newman A, McLean F. Heritage builds communities: the application of heritage resources to the problems of social exclusion. International Journal of Heritage Studies 1998, 4(3-4), 143-153.
- Newman A. Pyrite oxidation and museum collections, Theory and conservation. Geological Curator 1998, 6(10), 363-371.
- Newman A, McLean S, Hudson D. A Catalogue of the Type, Figured and Cited Fossil Vertebrates Held by the Hancock Museum, Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne. Newcastle upon Tyne: Hancock Museum, 1996.
- Ellison M, McCombie G, MacElvaney M, Newman A, O'Brian C, Williams A. Excavations at Newcastle Quayside: waterfront development at the Swirle. Archaeologia Aeliana: 5th series 1993, 21, 151-234.
- Newman A, Chatt-Ramsey J. A Catalogue of Specimens Figured in the Fossil Flora by John Lindley (1799-1865) and William Hutton (1797-1860), Including a Biography of William Hutton. Newcastle upon Tyne: Hancock Museum, 1988.