National Centre for Energy Systems Integration

Staff Profile

Dr Sara Walker

Senior Lecturer


Google Scholar Profile

Dr Sara Walker is currently Director of Expertise for Infrastructure Research in the School of Engineering. Her research is on energy efficiency and renewable energy at the building scale.


Dr Walker spent eight years at De Montfort University, where her research and teaching focussed on renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies, and where she also completed a PhD part time. This PhD investigated the impact of electricity sector deregulation on renewable energy market share. During that period with De Montfort University, Dr Walker worked on a number of research projects around renewable energy and energy efficiency, primarily funded by the European Commission.

Dr Walker then moved out of academia and into industry, with a five year period in energy related consultancies. This consultancy work for Econnect and IT Power included contribution to the influential report “Potential for micro-generation: study and analysis” published by Energy Saving Trust for the DTI. Dr Walker also worked on high profile projects for commercial clients, such as London Array.

In 2007, Dr Walker joined Northumbria University and continued her research on renewable energy and energy efficiency. She also developed new programmes, including the MEng Building Services Engineering, and successfully ran programmes, managed staff and developed research and business outreach. Her first role was as Subject Director for the Building Services team. Following a restructure she took on the role of Director of Research and Engagement for the Department of Architecture, Construction and Engineering. Later she was promoted to a Faculty role, as Director of Business and Engagement for the Faculty of Engineering and Computing.

In September 2015 Dr Walker joined Newcastle University in the School of Mechanical and Systems Engineering. She was Degree Programme Director for the MSc Renewable Energy Flexible Training Programme (REFLEX) and MSc Renewable Energy and Enterprise Management (REEM) until 2017. In 2017 she became Director of Expertise for Infrastructure research and member of the School of Engineering Executive Board. Her research continues to focus on renewable energy and energy efficiency in buildings, energy policy, energy resilience, and whole energy systems.

Faculty roles

Building as a Lab academic lead (Jan 2016 - Aug 2017)

Faculty Estates Strategy Group (Apr 2016 - Aug 2017)

EPSRC Prosperity Outcomes Award Panel (Aug 2016)

Engineering Excellence Organisation Group (Sep 2015-Jan 2016)

School roles

Director of Infrastructure (Aug 2017 - present)

Degree Programme Director (Sep 2015 - Mar 2017)

School Learning & Teaching Committee (Sep 2015 - Aug 2017)

Chair Athena Swan SAT (Jun 2016 - Aug 2017)

Chair Equality and Diversity Group (Jan 2016 - Aug 2017)

Member Athena Swan SAT (Sep 2015 - Jan 2016)


BSc(Hons) Physics, 1988-1991, Leicester University

Post Graduate Certificate in Education, 1991-1992, Leicester University.

MSc Environmental Science, 1993-1994, Nottingham University, thesis: "Impact of thermal comfort on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome".

PhD, 1997-2003, De Montfort University, thesis: "The impact of domestic electricity supply competition on the application of renewable energy technologies in the UK".




The energy sector in 2050 is likely to be very different to it’s current state, with changes expected to our supply and demand technologies. I am interested in the active role of the urban environment and buildings in the energy sector, particularly low-energy and low-carbon buildings, building-scale renewables, small scale energy storage, and electric vehicle charging/discharging load profiles. As we decarbonise heating, cooling, electricity and transport in the UK, my research aims to better understand the role of buildings as virtual power plants.

I am also interested in concepts of resilience as they are used in other disciplines, and whether these concepts are transferable to the energy sector. Existing concepts of resilience and supply security may not be appropriate to the energy sector in 2050.

Current projects:

Co-Investigator and Academic Deputy Director for the Active Building Centre.

The £36m Active Building Centre project will investigate the potential for large scale role out of domestic active buildings for the new build sector. Researchers at Newcastle University shall investigate the impact of active buildings on the energy networks, smart control of building elements, and the role of electric vehicles. Overall, energy demand, generation, storage and transport combine to enable the active building to be controlled to offer services to local networks, as well as ensuring energy services to the building occupant.

Grant Ref:       EP/S016627/1   

Co-Investigator and Associate Director for the National Centre for Energy Systems Integration.

The £20m EPSRC National Centre for Energy Systems Integration (CESI) paves the way to a flexible smart infrastructure, empowering customers and giving them greater control of their energy use. It allows industry to meet the tough new low carbon targets. Providing us with robust messages about the real world, the aim is to understand how we can optimise the energy network, drive down customer bills and inform future government policy.

Grant Ref:           EP/P001173/1

Co-Investigator and Deputy Director for the EPSRC Supergen Energy Networks Hub.

The £17m EPSRC Supergen Energy Networks Hub brings together the academic community to work on the issue of developing networks fit for the future. The research addresses the challenges of technology, policy, data, markets and risk for energy networks.

Grant ref:                 EP/S00078X/1

Principal Investigator for Building as a Power Plant

This project will investigate the feasibility of the Urban Sciences Building (Newcastle University) to offer services to the local network. The building is an interesting case study since it includes electricity generation, storage and demand, and thermal generation, storage and demand.

Grant ref:                 EP/P034241/1

Previous projects:

Urban scale building energy network (EPSRC), £24,000

e-mobility NSR (Interreg), €6.5m

Charge Your Car (Zero Carbon Futures), £100,000

Retrofit Reality (Housing Corporation and Gentoo), £30,000

Distributed generation with high penetration of renewable energy sources (DISPOWER) (Framework Programme 5), €17m

Deriving optimal promotion for increasing the share of RES-E in a dynamic European electricity market (Green-X) (Framework Programme 5), €1m

Tradable renewable energy certificate know-how and initiatives network (TRECKIN), €1m

Large scale self-financing of energy efficiency measures in Leicester and Barcelona (Altener), €1m



Programme leadership:

Sep 2015 - Mar 2017 : Degree Programme Director for Renewable Energy Flexible Training Programme (REFLEX) and Renewable Energy, Enterprise and Management (REEM) Masters degree programmes.

Module leadership:

SPG8006 Wind and hydro energy technology

SPG8009 Renewable energy: Policy, Politics and Practice

SPG8014 Introduction to hydro, wind, wave and tidal technology

SPG8024 Quantifying energy decision making

Other Teaching:

MSc dissertation projects


  • Wong LA, Ramachandaramurthy VK, Taylor P, Ekanayake JB, Walker SL, Padmanaban S. Review on the optimal placement, sizing and control of an energy storage system in the distribution network. Journal of Energy Storage 2019, 21, 489-504.
  • Giaouris D, Papadopoulos A, Patsios C, Walker S, Ziogou C, Taylor P, Voutetakis S, Papadopoulou S, Seferlis P. A Systems Approach for Management of Microgrids Considering Multiple Energy Carriers, Stochastic Loads, Forecasting and Demand Side Response. Applied Energy 2018, 226, 546-559.
  • Etim N-BB, Giaouris D, Papadopoulos AI, Patsios H, Papadopoulou S, Voutetakis S, Seferlis P, Walker S, Taylor P, Gadoue S. Adaptive Power Pinch Analysis for Energy management of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems. In: 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). 2018, Florence, Italy: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
  • Walker S, Cherry B. An integrated energy system. Network Magazine 2018, (May 2018), 8-9.
  • Crossland AF, Jones D, Wade NS, Walker SL. Comparison of the Location and Rating of Energy Storage for Renewables Integration in Residential Low Voltage Networks with Overvoltage Constraints. Energies 2018, 11(8), 2041.
  • Ng B, Tindall J, Edge J, Morrell J, Tioh D, Choi K, Du H, Wei S, Waggott A, Barber A, Keating M, Walker S, Qian Z. Refurbishment options to decarbonise a 1960s public office building by 2050s. In: CIBSE Technical Symposium 2018 - Stretching the Envelope. 2018, London, UK.
  • Bhagavathy S, Pearsall N, Putrus G, Walker S. Performance assessment of a three-phase distribution network with multiple residential single-phase PV systems. In: 24th International Conference & Exhibition on Electricity Distribution (CIRED). 2017, Glasgow: IET.
  • Bhagavathy SM, Pearsall N, Putrus G, Walker SL. Analysis of Distribution Network Performance under Different Penetration Levels of Solar PV. In: 12th Photovoltaic Science, Applications and Technology Conference. 2016, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK: The Solar Energy Society.
  • Agnew B, Walker S, Ng B, Tam ICK. Finite Time Analysis of a Tri-Generation Cycle. Energies 2015, 8(6), 6215-6229.
  • Walker SL. Infrastructure interactions: the built environment and the electricity network. In: International Sustainable Ecological Engineering Design for Sustainability 2015. 2015, Leeds, UK: The Leeds Sustainability Institute.
  • Agnew B, Walker S, Ng B, Tam ICK. Maximum output from a tri-generation cycle. Applied Thermal Engineering 2015, 90, 1015-1020.
  • Walker SL, Keirstead J. Localised impacts of national low carbon energy scenarios. In: Energy Systems Conference. 2014, Queen Elizabeth Conference Centre, London, UK.
  • Walker SL, Lowery D, Theobald K. Low-carbon retrofits in social housing: Interaction with occupant behaviour. Energy Research and Social Science 2014, 2, 102-114.
  • Walker SL, Hope A, Bentley E. Modelling steady state performance of a local electricity distribution system under UK 2050 carbon pathway scenarios. Energy 2014, 78, 604-621.
  • Lacey G, Putrus G, Bentley E, Johnston D, Walker S, Jiang T. A Modelling Tool to Investigate the Effect of Electric Vehicle Charging on Low Voltage Networks. In: Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition (EVS27). 2013, Barcelona, Spain.
  • Walker SL. The UK electricity system and its resilience. In: Leal, W; Vasoulous, V, ed. Global Energy Policy and Security. Springer VS, 2013.
  • Walker SL. Urban electricity systems: A UK case study. In: 2013 Architectural Engineering Institute (AEI) Conference. 2013, Penn State University, State College, USA.
  • Masheiti S, Agnew B, Walker S, Talbi M. An economical evaluation of a low-enthalpy geothermal resource located in an arid-zone area. Journal of Energy and Power Engineering 2012, 6, 1013-1021.
  • Lowery DM, Theobald K, Waggott A, Walker SL. Barriers to retrofit of housing with low carbon technologies. Engineering Sustainability 2012, 165(3), 191-199.
  • Walker SL. Can the GB feed-in tariff deliver the expected 2% of electricity from renewable sources?. Renewable Energy 2012, 43, 383-388.
  • Masheiti S, Agnew B, Walker S, Talbi M, Atan R. Environmental and thermal benefits of combining Brayton, absorption refrigeration and organic rankine cycles with a low-enthalpy geothermal source at an arid zone of Libya. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy 2012, 226(4), 545-555.
  • Clark G, Edge J, Walker SL. Modelling the Effect of Climate Change and Adaptive Comfort in Care Homes. In: 1st International Conference on Research and Education in Energy Efficiency. 2012, Loughborough, UK.
  • Walker SL. Building mounted wind turbines and their suitability for the urban scale - a review of methods of estimating urban wind resource. Energy and Buildings 2011, 43, 1852-1862. In Preparation.
  • Walker SL, Beacock P, Perera S. Educating the global citizen in sustainable development: the influence of accreditation bodies on professional programmes. EMERGE 2011, 3, 43-54.
  • Capper G, Theobald K, Walker SL. Energy demand and associated carbon emissions for Northumbria University estate: one School approach. In: RGS-IBG Annual International Conference 2011. 2011, Imperial College London, UK.
  • Lowery D, Theobald K, Walker SL. Social and behavioural barriers to achieving low-carbon retrofits in social housing. In: RGS-IBG Annual International Conference 2011. 2011, Imperial College London, UK.
  • Ng BM, Underwood CP, Walker SL. Standing Column Wells – Modelling the Potential for Applications in Geothermal Heating and Cooling. HVAC & R Research 2011, 17(6), 1089-1100.
  • Waggot A, Pearsall N, Theobald K, Walker SL. 'Monitoring Useful Solar Fraction in Retrofitted Social Housing. In: CIB World Congress 2010. 2010, Salford Quays, Manchester, UK.
  • Greenwood D, Lowery D, Theobald K, Walker S. Behavioural challenges in the exploitation of low-carbon domestic energy technologies. In: International Conference and Workshop on Sustainable Construction. 2009, Cairo, Egypt.
  • Richardson AE, Walker S, Hart A. Comparative Thermal Performance Test for GGBS and OPC Concrete Mixes. In: Ecozoom, International Conference on Sustainability in Building. 2009, VIA University College, Denmark.
  • Ng BM, Underwood C, Walker S. Numerical modelling of multiple standing column wells for heating and cooling buildings. In: Building Simulation 2009, 11th IBPSA conference. 2009, Glasgow, UK.
  • Batley SL, Colbourne D, Fleming PD, Urwin P. Citizen versus consumer. Challenges in the UK green power market. Energy Policy 2001, 29(6), 479-487.
  • Batley SL, Fleming PD, Urwin P. Willingness to pay for renewable energy: Implications for green tariff offerings. Journal of the Indoor and Built Environment 2000, 9(3-4), 157-170.
  • Batley SL, Twidell JW. Institutional and commercial factors affecting the integration of small embedded wind turbines onto weak rural UK grids. International Journal of Ambient Energy 1996, 17(3), 139-144.